Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Failed Active Listening in The Real World:\ud A Study of Dominance in Casual Conversation

By Tamara Jones


Native-English speakers generally appreciate a certain amount of supportive feedback from their listeners. However, occasionally, a positive listener response actually causes the speaker to become threatened and revert to floor-saving measures. Speakers whose first language is not English may be at a disadvantage when involved in interactions with native-English speakers because they may not be equipped with the tools to exercise conversational power, if they wish to do so. Consequently, with the goal of creating educational materials that can be easily used in English Language Teaching (ELT), this thesis examines instances of listener support which are not appreciated by the speaker. For my corpus, I pulled 69 conversations from a popular American reality TV show, The Real World. These conversations were selected because of the presence of floor-saving strategies in the wake of seemingly benign listener commentary. I adopt a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) approach with multimodal elements aimed at exploring issues of power in the struggle for conversational dominance inherent in the act of listener talk and speaker rejection of this support. These issues were exposed when I watched the video excerpts repeatedly and responded to questions set out in my framework for analysis. In this thesis, I first examine the terminology used to describe listener talk and control of the conversational floor. I propose more opaque terms, Active Listening Attempt (ALA) and, for instances in which the speaker reacts negatively to the ALA, I propose failed ALA. Moreover, I propose that the non-verbal also be considered as a “turn.” In the second section of this thesis, I find that “statement ALAs” are the most threatening to speakers. Moreover, surprisingly, I determined that the person who speaks the most is not always the holder of the conversational power and the listener’s intention may have no impact the success of his/her ALA whatsoever. In the third section of this thesis, I focus on the impact gender may have on the failure of an ALA. Specifically, I find that female speakers display greater conversational defensiveness, even in conversations with other females, than males. In the final section of my thesis, I propose some implications for ELT pedagogy

Publisher: School of Education (Sheffield)
Year: 2010
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2004). (1693) Some Thoughts Concerning
  2. (2002a) Dominance as expressed and inferred through speaking time.
  3. (2004). 10 reasons why linguists should pay attention to visual communication.
  4. (1996). 10) Surreal World. Fort Lauderdale Sun Sentinel.
  5. (2009). 18) The Real World: Brooklyn. For real.
  6. (2004). 26) MTV's 'Real World' turns into 'The Carnal Camera Show'. The Boston Globe. Retrieved
  7. (2005). A communication theory of identity: Development, theoretical perspective, and future direction.
  8. (2006). A comprehensive pedagogical framework to develop pragmatics in the foreign language classroom: The 6Rs approach.
  9. (2005). A critical literacy frame for UK secondary education contexts.
  10. (1982). A cultural approach to male - female miscommunication. In
  11. (1974). A simplest system for the organization of turn-taking for conversation.
  12. (2007). A step too far: Discursive psychology, linguistic ethnography and questions of identity.
  13. (2007). A study of backchannels in regional varieties of English, using corpus mark-up as the means of identification.
  14. (1993). A study on prosody and discourse structure in cooperative dialogues.
  15. (1987). A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism
  16. (2006). Academic oral communication needs of East Asian international graduate students in non-science and non-engineering fields. English for Specific Purposes,
  17. (1993). Action, interaction, and reaction: the video camera and the FL classroom.
  18. (2000). Adult spoken discourse: the influences of age and education.
  19. (2002). African American English: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge:
  20. (1983). Against discursive imperialism, empiricism, and constructionism: Thirty-two problems with discourse analysis.
  21. (1985). Agreeing and disagreeing with assessments.
  22. (2007). Am I a course instructor or a nonnative speaker?
  23. (2007). American Accent Skills: Intonation, Reductions, Word Connections,
  24. (1986). An integrated approach to studying intonation and attitude.
  25. (2004). An introduction to Critical Discourse Analysis in education. In
  26. (1999). An Introduction to Discourse Analysis,
  27. (2003). An Introduction to Pragmatics: Social Action for Language Teachers,
  28. (1997). Analysing Casual Conversation,
  29. (2003). Analysing Discourse,
  30. (2004). Analysing discursive variation. In
  31. (2005). Analysing gender and language.
  32. (2004). Analyzing Multimodal Interaction,
  33. (2005). Analyzing spoken language in the classroom.
  34. (2009). Are eyebrow movements linked to voice variation and turn-taking in dialogue? An experimental investigation.
  35. (2001). Between theory, method, and politics: Positioning of approaches to CDA. In
  36. (2000). Beyond exchange: Appraisal Systems in English.
  37. (2005). Beyond Rhetorical Questions,
  38. (2002). Beyond science and ideology critique: Developments in critical discourse analysis.
  39. (2001). Body Politics. In
  40. (2005). Book Review: Reality TV: The work of being watched.
  41. (2007). Book review: The linguistics of laughter, a corpus-assisted study of laughter-talk.
  42. (1994). By dint of: student and lecturer perceptions of lecture comprehension strategies in first-term graduate study. In
  43. (2007). By their words shall ye know them: On linguistic identity.
  44. (1994). Can you see whose speech is overlapping?
  45. (2007). Categories in action: person-reference and membership categorization.
  46. (2004). Challenges of entering discourse communities through publishing in English: Perspectives of nonnative-speaking doctoral students in the United States of America.
  47. (2001). Clear Speech,
  48. (2008). Coding personhood through cultural terms and practices: silence and quietude as a Finnish ―Natural Way of Being‖.
  49. (2008). Cognition, language contact, and pragmatic comprehension.
  50. (2002). Coherent but Discontinuous- On How a Discontinuous Turn is
  51. (2009). Collaborative narration in preadolescent girl talk: A Saturday luncheon conversation among three friends.
  52. (2007). Communicating a feeling: The social organization of private thoughts.
  53. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity, Cambridge:
  54. (1993). Concluding remarks: for a sociogenetic understanding of intellectual works. In
  55. (2004). Constructing ethnicity in interaction.
  56. (2002). Content Standards in Adult ESL,
  57. (2001). Context is/as critique.
  58. (2005). Conversation Analysis and Discourse Analysis: A Comparative and Critical Introduction,
  59. (2003). Conversation analysis and discourse analysis: methods or paradigms?
  60. (1999). Conversation analysis at century‘s end: Practices of talkin-interaction, their distributions, and their outcomes.
  61. (1999). Conversation Analysis: Principles, Practices, and Applications,
  62. (1994). Conversation analysis: Some thoughts on its applicability to applied linguistics.
  63. (1995). Conversation Analysis: The Study of Talk-in-Interaction,
  64. (2004). Conversation Analysis. In
  65. (1997). Conversation, coordination, and vertebrate communication.
  66. (2006). Conversation: From Description to Pedagogy, Cambridge:
  67. (1984). Conversational Style: Analyzing Talk among Friends,
  68. (1999). Cooperative attending skills training for ESL students. In
  69. (1996). Coordinating Turn-taking with Gaze.
  70. (2008). Corpus and Context,
  71. (1985). Critical and descriptive goals in discourse analysis.
  72. (2004). Critical discourse analysis and identity; Why bother?
  73. (2001). Critical discourse analysis as a method in social scientific research. In
  74. (2002). Critical Discourse Analysis: A Letter to Expatriates from the Rt. Hon. Sir Norman Fowler,
  75. (1997). Critical discourse analysis.
  76. (1997). Critical discourse analysis. In
  77. (2005). Critical Discourse Analysis. Paper presented at the th annual Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) convention,
  78. (2005). Critical ethnography: The politics of collaboration.
  79. (2003). Critical issues in developmental pragmatics. In
  80. (2006). Cross-cultural pragmatic failure. In
  81. (2003). Cultural studies, critical theory and Critical Discourse Analysis: Histories, remembering and futures.
  82. (1993). Culture and the concept of culture in a theory of practice. In
  83. (1986). Current issues in the study of gesture. In
  84. (2007). Current Trends in the Use of Corpora, Paper presented at the 41 st annual TESOL Convention,
  85. (2002). Deconstructive discourse analysis: Extending the methodological conversation.
  86. (1994). Describing Language,
  87. (1999). Description and interpretation in critical discourse analysis.
  88. (1991). Developing pragmatic awareness: closing the conversation.
  89. (1996). Developmental issues in interlanguage pragmatics.
  90. (1992). Did you have a good weekend? Or why there is no such thing as a simple question in cross-cultural encounters.
  91. (2005). Digital Beginnings: Young Children‘s Use of Popular Culture, Media and New Technologies. Retrieved on
  92. (1985). Dimensions of discourse analysis: Grammar.
  93. (1991). Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers, Cambridge:
  94. (2002). Discourse Analysis Means Doing Analysis: A Critique Of Six Analytic Shortcomings.
  95. (2006). Discourse Analysis,
  96. (2004). Discourse analysis: What makes it critical? In
  97. (2001). Discourse and Knowledge: Theoretical and methodological aspects of a critical discourse and dispositive analysis.
  98. (2009). Discourse Dynamics in Participatory Planning,
  99. (2009). Discourse marker ‗oh‘ as a means for realizing the identity potential of constructed dialogue in interaction.
  100. (2004). Discourse patterns in spoken and written corpora.
  101. (1982). Discourse Strategies,
  102. (2006). Discourse, context and cognition.
  103. (1996). Discourse, power and access.
  104. (2005). Discourse: A Critical Introduction, Cambridge:
  105. (2008). Discursive practice in language learning and teaching,
  106. (1986). Divided Illocution‖ in Conversational and Other Situations -And Some of Its Implications.
  107. (2000). Doing Discourse Analysis,
  108. (1992). Don‘t try to make out that I‘m nice: The different strategies women and men use when gossiping. Wellington Working Papers in Linguistics,
  109. (2004). Don’t think of an Elephant,
  110. (2005). Early millennial feminist qualitative research: Challenges and contours.
  111. (2000). Educational Research: Contemporary Issues and Practical Approaches,
  112. (1998). Emotion talk between same- and mixedgender friends: Form and function.
  113. (2008). English as a Lingua Franca, paper presented at the 47 th annual Japanese Association of College Teachers conference,
  114. (2005). English as a lingua franca.
  115. (2005). English in Urban Classrooms, London and
  116. (2008). Evaluation of peer comforting strategies by children and adolescents.
  117. (2008). Explaining gender-based language use: Effects of gender identity salience on reference to emotion and tentative language in intra- and intergroup contexts.
  118. (2003). Expressions of gender: an analysis of pupils‘ gendered discourse styles in small group classroom discussions.
  119. (2002). Female dominance hierarchies: Are they any different from males?
  120. (2007). Feminist psychology, conversation analysis and empirical research: An illustration using identity categories.
  121. (2008). Finding hidden meaning in mass media through Critical Discourse Analysis and implications for language teaching. Hawai'i Pacific University Teaching English as a Second Language Working Paper Series,
  122. (1996). Floor management and power strategies in adolescent conversation. In
  123. (2006). Footing, positioning, voice: Are we talking about the same thing? In
  124. (2003). Force on Adult Education
  125. (2004). Foreword. I n R. Rogers (Ed), An Introduction to Critical Discourse Analysis in Education, Mahwah, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum Associates,
  126. (1974). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience,
  127. (1997). Gender and language in the workplace.
  128. (2008). Gender differences in speech temporal patterns detected using lagged co-occurrence text-analysis of personal narratives.
  129. (2002). Gender identity and discourse analysis: Theoretical and empirical considerations, in
  130. (2002). Gender identity and discourse analysis: Theoretical and empirical considerations.
  131. (1998). Gender patterns of psychosocial development.
  132. (2007). Gender preferential responses to speech.
  133. (2000). Gender relevance in talk-in-interaction and discourse.
  134. (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity,
  135. (1997). Gender, discourse and senior education: Ligatures for girls, options for boys? In
  136. (2002). Gender, Language and Discourse,
  137. (1985). Gender, language, and discourse.
  138. (2002). Generalizabilty in communication research.
  139. (2002). German compliment responses.
  140. (2004). Glossary of transcript symbols with an introduction.
  141. (1993). Habitus, field, and capital: The question of historic specificity. In
  142. (2005). Habitus, social identity, the perception of male domination – and agency?
  143. (2003). Hearing Gesture, Cambridge and London: The Belknap Press of
  144. (2006). Hegemonic identity-making in narrative. In
  145. (2006). How can insights from conversation analysis be directly applied to teaching L2 pragmatics? Language Teaching Research,
  146. (1994). How real can you get?': Recent developments in `reality' television.
  147. (2008). How rude! Teaching impoliteness in the secondlanguage classroom.
  148. (2004). Identifying units in interaction: Reactive tokens in Korean and English conversations.
  149. (2005). Identity and interaction: A sociocultural linguistic approach,
  150. (1998). Identity as an achievement and as a tool.
  151. (2004). Increments to turns in talk in interaction.
  152. (1992). Indexing gender, In
  153. (2009). Interjections as pragmatic markers.
  154. (1995). Interruption and influence in discussion groups.
  155. (1989). Interruptions in group discussion: The effects of gender and group composition.
  156. (2008). Interruptions, status and gender in medical interviews: The harder you brake the longer it takes. Discourse and Society,
  157. (2000). Intonation in Text and Discourse,
  158. (1999). Introducing Cultural Studies, Hertfordshire:
  159. (2005). Introducing Social Semiotics,
  160. (2005). Introduction to Social Research,
  161. (1985). Introduction: Levels and dimensions of discourse analysis.
  162. (2007). Introduction: person-reference in conversation analytic research.
  163. (1999). Introduction: Perspectives on discourse and analysis.
  164. (2005). Introduction. In
  165. (1980). Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities,
  166. (2004). It‘s all becoming a habitus‘: Beyond the habitual use of habitus in educational research.
  167. (1997). Jockeying for position: The construction of masculine identities.
  168. (1999). Language and ethnicity. In
  169. (2010). Language and Gender,
  170. (2003). Language and Gender, Cambridge:
  171. (1999). Language and identity. In
  172. (1989). Language and Power,
  173. (1978). Language as Social Semiotic, London:
  174. (2000). Language in the lexical approach. In
  175. (2003). Language, gender, and politics: Putting ―women‖ and ―power‖ in the same sentence. In
  176. (1985). Language, Society and Identity,
  177. (2001). Language: why we study language and why now? Lecture presented at the MEd (ELT) March Residential Weekend,
  178. (2004). Learning pragmatics from ESL and EFL textbooks: How likely?
  179. (1992). Lectures on Conversation, Volumes I and II.
  180. (1999). Linguistic and intertextual analysis within discourse analysis.
  181. Locating Power:
  182. (1975). Logic and Conversation. In
  183. (2003). Looking at the front door: Exploring images of the black male on MTV‘s The Real World. In
  184. (2007). Looking from the inside out: Academic blogging as new literacy. In
  185. (1978). Looking in conversation and the regulation of turns at talk.
  186. (2003). Manifestations of relationship conceptualisations in conversation.
  187. (2001). Mediated Discourse: The Nexus of Practice,
  188. (2006). Mediation between discourse and society: Assessing cognative approaches in CDA.
  189. (1998). Men‘s identities and sociolinguistic variation: The case of fraternity men.
  190. (2007). Mitigating difficult requests in the workplace: What learners and teachers need to know.
  191. (2009). Modes as Technologies of Transcription: Some Comments on Contemporary Forms of Composition. Paper presented at the Symposium on Multimodal Approaches to Communication,
  192. (2006). Multicultural Communication: Whose Culture, Whose Pragmatics? Paper presented at the 40 th annual TESOL Convention,
  193. (2001). Multidisciplinary CDA: A plea for diversity. In
  194. (2004). Multimodal Analysis Workshop: Visual Data. Retrieved
  195. (2004). Multimodal Discourse Analysis,
  196. (2001). Multimodal Discourse: The Modes and Media of Contemporary Communication,
  197. (2006). Multimodal Transcription and Text Analysis,
  198. (2003). Multiple discourse analyses of a workplace interaction.
  199. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry,
  200. (1985). Negotiation and meaning: Revisiting the context of situation. In
  201. (2002). New Faculty: A Practical Guide for Academic Beginners,
  202. (1994). No gap, lots of overlap: Turn taking patterns in the talk of women friends. In
  203. (2004). No no no‖ and other types of multiple sayings in social interaction.
  204. (2007). Nodding and smiling in silence during the loop sequence of backchannels in Japanese conversation.
  205. (1989). Notes on overlap management in conversation: The case of delayed completion.
  206. (1993). Notes on semantics in linguistic practice. In
  207. (2001). Observations on overlap: Findings and implications for automatic processing of multi-party conversation.
  208. (1989). Oh darn! I‘d live to come, but I already have plans: television invitations as conversation models.
  209. (2008). On a pitch duration technique for prosody control.
  210. (1970). On getting a work in edgewise. Papers from the 6 th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society,
  211. (1974). On signalling that it‘s your turn to speak.
  212. (2004). On the place of linguistic resources in the organization of talk-in-interaction: Grammar as action in prompting a speaker to elaborate.
  213. (1997). One at a time talk: The organization of men‘s talk.
  214. (2003). Orchestrating debate: A multimodal analysis of classroom interaction. Reading: Literacy and Language,
  215. (1998). Orders of reality: CANCODE, communication, and culture.
  216. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice, Cambridge:
  217. (2009). Outside in-group and out-group identities? Constructing male solidarity and female exclusion
  218. (2002). Overlap and “The Real World”, Unpublished Med Thesis,
  219. (2000). Overlapping talk and the organization of turn-taking for conversation.
  220. (2006). Participants‘ online analysis and multimodal practices: Projecting the end of the turn and the closing of the sequence.
  221. (2008). Patterns of age-based linguistic variation in American English.
  222. (1998). Performing gender identity: Young men‘s talk and the construction of heterosexual masculinity. In
  223. (1996). Personal Pronouns in Present Day English, Cambridge:
  224. (1991). Pitch, loudness and turn regulation in Akan conversation. York Papers
  225. (1987). Poet and peasant. A pragmatic comedy in five acts.
  226. (1987). Politeness: Some Universals in Language USAGE, Cambridge:
  227. (2006). Popular culture in the literacy curriculum: A Bourdieuan analysis.
  228. (1998). Positioning and interpretative repertoires: Conversation analysis and post-structuralism in dialogue.
  229. (1987). Power and solidarity in ‗interruption‘: A critique of the Santa Barbara school conception and its application by Orcutt and Harvey
  230. (2004). Power in discourse: The case of arguments on a British talk radio show. In
  231. (2002). Power Talk: Language and Interaction
  232. (2001). Practices of seeing visual analysis: An ethnomethodological approach.
  233. (2002). Pragmatic competence in lingua franca English. In
  234. (1994). Pragmatic Consciousness-Raising
  235. (2009). Pragmatic cooperation revisited: Resistance and noncooperation as a discursive strategy in asymmetrical discourses.
  236. (2002). Pragmatic development in a second language. Language Learning, Monograph Series.
  237. (2010). Pragmatics in Use,
  238. (2007). Pragmatics of conversation and communication in noisy settings.
  239. (1996). Pragmatics,
  240. (1997). Pragmatics, Cambridge:
  241. (1993). Pragmatics: An Introduction,
  242. (1995). Problems in the presentation of speech acts in ELT materials: the case of complaints.
  243. (2005). Pronunciation,
  244. (1998). Prosody as an interactional resource: Turn-projection and overlap. Language and Speech,
  245. (2008). Questions of accountability: Yes/no interrogatives that are unanswerable.
  246. (2005). Raising the pragmatic awareness of language learners.
  247. (2003). Reality TV: The Work of Being Watched,
  248. (1975). Replies and responses.
  249. (1998). Reported speech and survivor identity in on-line bone marrow transplantation narratives.
  250. (2004). Research perspectives on teaching English as a lingua franca.
  251. (2005). Rethinking critical theory and qualitative research.
  252. (2007). Reviews. Language in
  253. (1962). Selting (Eds.), Prosody in Conversation, Cambridge:
  254. (2004). Serving Generation 1.5 in College Writing Classes. Paper presented at the 38 th annual Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) convention,
  255. (1975). Sex roles, interruptions and silences in conversation.
  256. (2008). Sex similarities and differences in stance in informal American conversation.
  257. (1994). Simultaneous speech in small group conversation: All-together-now and one-at-a-time?
  258. (1991). Slip of the tongue or slip of the ear? On the perception and transcription of naturalistic slips of the tongue.
  259. (2006). Small and large identities in narrative (inter)action. In
  260. (2003). Sociolinguistic nostalgia and the authentication of identity.
  261. (1974). Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society,
  262. (1990). Sociology in Question,
  263. (1972). Some signals and rules for talking speaking turns in conversations.
  264. (1976). Some sources of cultural variability in the regulation of talk.
  265. (2006). Some thoughts on personal identity construction: A multimodal perspective. In
  266. (2007). Some uses of third-person reference forms in speaker-self reference.
  267. (1994). Sounds Great,
  268. (1994). Spanish and American turn-taking styles: A comparative study.
  269. (1986). Speech Genres and Other Late Essays,
  270. (2006). Spontaneous and non-spontaneous turn-taking.
  271. (2000). Statement on Research for Transfer from M.Phil. to Ph.D. Unpublished Upgrade Paper,
  272. (1967). Studies in Ethnomethodology,
  273. (2003). Studying compliment responses: A comparison of DCTs and recordings of naturally occurring talk.
  274. (2007). Synthesis of Prosodic Attitudinal Variants in German Backchannel Ja. Paper presented at the 8 th annual Interspeech Convention,
  275. (2005). Taking a critical linguistic turn: Using critical discourse analysis for the study of information systems.
  276. (1991). Talk as "problem" and communication as "miscommunication": An integrative analysis. In
  277. (1998). Talk control: An illustration from the classroom of problems in analysing male dominance of conversation. In
  278. (2007). Talk in a play frame: More on laughter and intimacy.
  279. (1994). Talking from 9 to 5,
  280. (2005). Talking terms: Choosing and using terminology for EFL classrooms,
  281. (1989). Talking Voices, Cambridge:
  282. (2004). Talking, creating: Interactional language, creativity and context. Applied Linguistics,
  283. (1999). Teachers and students learning about requests in Hong Kong.
  284. (1997). Teachers‘ awareness of learners‘ knowledge: The case of metalinguistic terminology.
  285. (2008). Teaching and learning sociolinguist skills in university EFL classes in Taiwan.
  286. (2001). Teaching Languages in Context: Proficiency-oriented Instruction,
  287. (2008). Teaching Pronunciation: Using the Prosody Pyramid,
  288. (2000). Teletubby tales: Popular culture in the early years language and literacy curriculum.
  289. (1995). Textual Politics: Discourse and Social Dynamics, London: Taylor
  290. (1998). The Adaptation of Southeast Asian Refugee Youth: A Comparative Study.
  291. (1972). The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language,
  292. (1997). The Communicative Value of Intonation in English, Cambridge:
  293. (2004). The concept of ‗World English‘ and its implications for ELT.
  294. (1997). The construction of a collaborative floor in women‘s friendly talk.
  295. (2002). The construction of conversational equality by women. In
  296. (1998). The discursive reconstruction of sexual consent.
  297. (2003). The hyper-realism of simulation.
  298. (2001). The ideological organization of representational processes in the presentation of us and them.
  299. (2008). The language of critical discourse analysis: The case of nominalization.
  300. (1997). The Many Faces of Conversational Laughter.
  301. (2001). The Music of Everyday Speech: Prosody and Discourse Analysis,
  302. (1997). The Northridge earthquake conversation: The floor structure and the ‗loop‘ sequence in Japanese conversation.
  303. (1994). The ownership of English.
  304. (1994). The Politics of Pronouns.
  305. (1995). The power of talk,
  306. (2000). The pragmatics of making requests in the L2 workplace: A case study of language socialization.
  307. (2001). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. In
  308. (2001). The production of selves in personal relationships. In
  309. (2001). The relativity of linguistic strategies: Rethinking power and solidarity in gender and dominance. In
  310. (1999). The role of gesture in communication and thinking.
  311. (2009). The role of pragmatics in the Master‘s TESOL curriculum: Findings from a nationwide survey.
  312. (2002). The silencing of women. In
  313. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality,
  314. (1985). The structure of a text.
  315. (1998). The talk of women friends. In
  316. (2003). The teaching of business pragmatics. In
  317. (2000). The token ―yeah‖ in nonnative speaker English conversation.
  318. (2009). Theoretical and methodological aspects of Foucauldian critical discourse analysis and dispositive analysis, In
  319. (2007). Theories of identity and the analysis of face.
  320. (2005). Theorizing ―context‖ for text analysis.
  321. (2005). Time for a change: A critical discoursal analysis of synchronic context with diachronic relevance.
  322. (2003). Towards a Critical Literacy Frame: A Textual Analysis of the Adversarial Political Interview, Unpublished PhD Thesis,
  323. (2009). Towards an emancipatory pragmatics.
  324. (2004). Training Students to be Active in Discussions. Paper presented at the 38 th annual Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) convention,
  325. (2000). Troublesome Discourse: Analysis of Native Speaker / Non-Native Speaker Conversation. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
  326. (1980). Truth and power. In
  327. (1996). Turn organization: One intersection of grammar and interaction. In
  328. (1983). Turn Taking in English Conversation,
  329. (2007). Unanswered questions and unquestioned answers in the study of language and gender: Female verbal superiority.
  330. (2003). Understanding intercultural communication: An introduction and overview.
  331. (2001). Unfolding discourse analysis. In
  332. (2004). Using corpus linguistics to investigate class, ideology and discursive practices in online political discussions.
  333. (1992). Using video to teach communicative English to students of international business,
  334. (1993). Varieties of Questions in English Conversation,
  335. (2001). What CDA is about – A summary of its history, important concepts, and its developments. In
  336. (2004). What does a focus on ―men‘s language‖ tell us about language and a woman‘s place? In
  337. (2001). When Listeners Talk,
  338. (1981). Who‘s got the floor? Language in Society,10.
  339. (1997). Whose text? Whose context?
  340. (1988). Women and men speaking at the same time.
  341. (1996). Women Talk: Conversation between Women Friends,
  342. (1997). Women, language, and identity.
  343. (1993). Women, men and interruptions: A critical review. In
  344. (1995). Women, Men and Politeness,
  345. (2004). Women, men and politeness: Agreeable and disagreeable responses. In
  346. (1996). Women, men, and types of talk: What makes the difference? Language in
  347. (1998). Women‘s talk: The question of sociolinguistic universals. In
  348. (2001). Working with Spoken Discourse,
  349. (2007). Writing the future in the digital age.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.