Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

How popular musicians teach

By Tim Robinson


The present study asks how musicians who have learned outside the classical tradition teach others to play. A group of eight instrumental teachers were studied, all of whom grew up playing ‘popular’, vernacular styles of music. While most of them had at least some experience of being taught classical music, they spent their formative years committed to largely self-directed learning, acquiring the skills they needed in order to play the styles that appealed to them at the time: namely rock, blues, jazz or folk.\ud \ud The teachers were interviewed about their learning histories and their teaching practice, and were filmed teaching a total of eleven students. There was a wide range of instrumental teaching strategies in evidence, from the orthodox teaching of classical music to lessons based entirely on listening and copying. However, in exploring the relationship between how this group learned to play and how they teach others to play, it was evident that they were not ‘teaching as they were taught’, nor were they necessarily re-creating their own ‘informal’ learning practices. Rather they were creating their own idiosyncratic teaching strategies, drawing on those elements of their own learning histories which they valued, and supplementing these with aspects of musical learning which they felt they had missed out on; in short, they were attempting to teach as they would have wanted to be taught themselves. Their teaching practice, and their sense of identity, was strongly influenced both by the economic realities of trying to survive as musicians, and by the nature of their students, who were generally viewed as relatively unmotivated.\ud \ud The study addresses an under-researched area of music teaching, and the findings are relevant to course designers, syllabus consultants and instrumental teachers generally, as well as music education researchers, in particular those interested in popular music and informal learning.\u

Publisher: Music (Sheffield)
Year: 2010
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2000b) ʻReasons to teach music: establishing a place in the contemporary curriculumʼ,
  2. (1997). (Un)doing Fieldwork: Sharing Songs, Sharing Livesʼ in
  3. (1941). (with the assistance of George Simpson)
  4. (2006). 208The teachers in Bakerʼs study seemed to view teaching for a music service as a temporary ʻsafety-netʼ
  5. (2004). 251) Such activities typically happen away from the world of traditional academic interests fostered in schools and universities (Lilliestam,
  6. (2006). 38Table 2: Chronology of data collection Date Event
  7. (2000). 53) Much advice to instrumental teachers seems to consist of strategies to ʻhelp alleviate the daily grind of practisingʼ (OʼNeill
  8. (2000). A century of change in music education.
  9. (2005). A degree of independence: teachersʼ approaches to instrumental tuition in a university collegeʼ,
  10. (2003). A Study of Interaction and Learning in Instrumental Teachingʼ,
  11. (2005). A young personʼs guide to the orchestral professionʼ,
  12. (1996). abuse their power, or misuse their words. Adopting the metaphor of a gift compels the researcher to treat data with a degree of respect and to be continually sensitive to the giver.
  13. (2002). acknowledges that the boundaries between musical worlds are in fact fluid. She states that ʻformal music educationʼ and ʻinformal music learningʼ are not mutually exclusive; rather, they can be conceived ʻas extremes existing at two ends of a single poleʼ
  14. (1993). and draws explicit links between two apparently discrete musical traditions by focusing on the ʻintersection of heavy metal and classical musicʼ (Walser,
  15. (2004). and subthemes are created and discussed, the aim being to produce a “grounded analysis” - that is, an analysis based in and emerging from the data.
  16. (2002). Approaches to Music Notation: the printed score as a mediator of meaning in Western tonal traditionʼ,
  17. (2003). Areas of Study and Teaching Strategies in Instrumental Teaching: a case study research projectʼ,
  18. (1982). Art Worlds.
  19. (2003). As a researcher, I was placed within a particular social order experiencing events as a temporary member - all the while chronicling observations, taking field notes, and recording personal reflections.
  20. (1990). As such I felt that an analytic stance drawn more from relatively pragmatic approaches such as ʻgrounded theoryʼ (see, for example, Strauss and Corbin,
  21. (1992). Assessment of effective teaching by instrumental music students and expertsʼ, Update:
  22. (2000). Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music
  23. Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music (2010) For statistical information on grade exams, see: practicalStats.html (last accessed 12/3/10).
  24. (1998). At least some of this music is awaiting stimulation and development, I am certain, through the training and enrichment that we can provide to children.
  25. (2002). At the very least, formal popular music instrumental teachers cannot be assumed to teach their students in the ways that they themselves learned.
  26. (1993). Attempts to introduce aspects of informal learning into formal education have taken various forms. For example, Alf Bjornberg
  27. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques.
  28. (1995). Between these two positions, one may consider that what the respondents say does have some significance and “reality” for them beyond the bounds of this particular occasion...the talk will probably also have some relationship to a world outside.
  29. (1995). Between Voice and Silence.
  30. (2004). Between Work and Leisure: The Common Ground of Two Separate Worlds. New Brunswick and London:
  31. (2005). Beyond a Boundary.
  32. (2006). Beyond Subculture: Pop, Youth and Identity in a Postcolonial World. London and
  33. (2002). Bill seemed to have done exactly what Green
  34. (2006). BoomTown Music Education - A Co-creating way to learn music within formal music educationʼ, see: pdfs/551.pdf (last accessed 12/3/10).
  35. (2010). Bridging the gap: Informal learning practices as a pedagogy of integrationʼ,
  36. (2000). can always see through peopleʼs claims and know better than they do. Of course, this assumption of superiority to others usually guarantees that access will not be obtained or, if obtained, will be unsuccessful.
  37. (2009). Categories and music transmissionʼ,
  38. (2000). Commitment and Practice: Key Ingredients for Achievement During the Early Stages of Learning a Musical Instrumentʼ,
  39. (1999). Community-based Traditional Fiddling as a Basis for Increasing Participation in Instrument Playingʼ,
  40. (2002). composition and improvisational abilities are thus acquired not only as individuals, but, crucially, as members of a group, usually from very early stages.
  41. (2005). Conservatoire student and instrumental professor: the student perspective on a complex relationshipʼ,
  42. (1994). Control before shape - on mastering the clarinet: A case study on commonsense teachingʼ,
  43. (1977). Definitions of popular music: Recycled',
  44. (2005). Democracy and Music Education. Bloomington and Indianapolis:
  45. (2003). Discourse Analysisʼ,
  46. (2004). Documenting the Musical Event: Observation, Participation, Representationʼ,
  47. (2000). Doing Qualitative Research.
  48. (2000). Educational Research: Contemporary Issues and Practical 286Approaches.
  49. (2006). educators may need to tread carefully if they are to enter the private cultural space of others; merely by their presence, teachers risk alienating their students from music which has meaning for them (Green,
  50. (1995). Empirical authors, liminal texts and model readersʼ,
  51. (1997). Environmental factors in the development of musical performance skill over the life spanʼ,
  52. (2002). Environmental Influencesʼ,
  53. (2006). Exploring the outcomes of rock and popular music instruction in high school guitar class: a case studyʼ,
  54. (2002). Federation of Music Services, National Association of Music Educators, Royal College of Music
  55. (1989). flutes, and the voice. It seemed to be social convention and vested interest rather than technical instrumental requirements that led to the specific learning and performance modes attached to particular instruments.
  56. (2004). focus of attention in music education research. (Cox and Hennessy,
  57. (2002). For all of them, printed materials were used as learning resources in the early stages only and in all cases any form of written resource appeared to have been dropped during the first months or first couple of years of learning.
  58. (1980). for the experience which replaces pedagogy. Musically, local rock band practice is a case of the blind leading the blind.
  59. (1999). For the Love of It: Amateuring and Its Rivals. Chicago and London:
  60. (2006). Formal and informal learning situations or practices vs formal and informal ways of learningʼ,
  61. (2004). Formal and non-formal music learning amongst rock musicians’,
  62. (2002). From Sound to Signʼ,
  63. (2006). Garage rock bands: a future model for developing musical expertise?ʼ,
  64. (1997). Gender and Musicʼ,
  65. (2002). Gender identity and musicʼ,
  66. (1984). Going Private: Ceremonial Forms in a Private Oncology Clinicʼ,
  67. (1998). good” one so that you could see what made it good. That would make it possible for other institutions of that type to adopt the good practices you had detected, and that would raise the standard of that segment of the organizational world. (Becker,
  68. (2002). Green also gives examples of the positive influence that teachers (instrumental teachers in particular) can have on informal learners, and repeats the idea that ʻthe likelihood is that parents play a prominent role in the formation of popular musiciansʼ
  69. (2005). guidance and adult supervision. They have much to learn from adults, including parents, teachers, and experienced musicians, which implies communication and the exercising of self-restraint.
  70. (1963). Half our Future [The Newsom Report].
  71. (2005). Hammer of the Gods: Led Zeppelin Unauthorised.
  72. (2002). Here he ensured that versatility was emphasized in the organization of the course.
  73. (1969). How Children Fail.
  74. (2002). How Popular Musicians Learn.
  75. (1990). How Women Become Musiciansʼ,
  76. (1995). Hymn to Her: Women Musicians Talk.
  77. (2002). I would echo Hallamʼs
  78. (2002). if we consider the idea of self-recruitment, there is a considerable body of research on motivation and choice in music learning; OʼNeill and McPherson
  79. (1992). Improvisation: Its Nature and Practice in Music.
  80. (1989). In her ethnomusicological study of musicians in Milton Keynes,
  81. (2003). In other words, in order to make sense of what people say, we need to take into account the social context within which they speak.
  82. (2006). In section 5.5 I discussed some aspects of the social and political background to how popular music is used in education, and whether this constitutes ʻappreciation or appropriationʼ (Huq,
  83. (2006). In the event, the first three months of data collection proved the most significant in terms of emerging theory. Between January and
  84. (2002). Informal Learning of Musical Instruments: the importance of social context',
  85. (1999). Instrumental learning with exams in mind: a case study investigating teacher, student and parent interactions before, during 274and after a music examinationʼ,
  86. (2007). Instrumental Teaching.
  87. (2002). Interest and choice: student-selected repertoire and its effect on practising behaviourʼ,
  88. (2003). Interpretative Phenomenological Analysisʼ,
  89. (2001). Interpreting Qualitative Data.
  90. (2004). into talented young musicians at a specialist music school. Neither he nor his classmates had taken the research project seriously, he claimed, and 50 they had vied with one another in faking data about the amount of practice time they had put in.
  91. (1999). It is difficult to see what cultural authenticity is represented by a school orchestra struggling to play classical music to an audience who would never otherwise listen to it.
  92. (1995). It may be that there are, in fact, benefits to gathering data as an ʻoutsiderʼ, assuming that rapport can first be established, since this position may elicit explanations which would not be thought necessary for those of insider status (Taylor et al.,
  93. (1995). It sounded good to me! [Bill] Roger Horrocks makes a relevant point: 77 Many popular cultural forms seem associated with the pleasures of the taboo...the songs ʻyour mother wouldn't likeʼ are exciting because she wouldn't like them. (Horrocks,
  94. (1997). Knowing Fieldworkʼ, in
  95. (2004). Learners: Their characteristics and developmentʼ,
  96. (2000). learning an instrument was no different from participating in a team sport, taking up a hobby, or pursuing other recreational activities.
  97. (1998). learning goals. As there is currently no consensus regarding the purpose of instrumental tuition, it is impossible to define an ideal model of teaching.
  98. (1987). Learning in school and outʼ,
  99. (1994). Learning practices, then, are not confined to one or another musical world, and this is evident in a range of different settings. Jazz improvisation has been analysed in exhaustive detail (Berliner,
  100. (2006). Life histories of music service teachers: The past in inducteesʼ presentʼ,
  101. (2006). Making Music in Britain: Interviews with those Behind the Notes.
  102. (1995). Male Myths and Icons: Masculinity in Popular Culture.
  103. (1979). Many cultural commentators and music critics have sought to draw a distinction between popular music and ʻseriousʼ or ʻartʼ music (see Abbs,
  104. (2004). Mapping Music Education Research in the UK',
  105. (2004). Music as Social Behaviorʼ,
  106. (2003). Music Education, Cultural Capital, and Social Group Identityʼ in
  107. (2004). Music in Schoolsʼ, in
  108. (1980). music is exemplified by the processes of self-recruitment and learning without pedagogy.
  109. (1987). Music of the Common Tongue.
  110. (1988). Music on Deaf Ears: Musical Meaning, Ideology and Education. Manchester and New York:
  111. (2003). Music Teaching and Young People's Own Musical Experience',
  112. (1997). Music, Gender, Education. Cambridge:
  113. (2008). Music, Informal Learning and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy.
  114. (1988). Music, Talent and Performance: a conservatory cultural system.
  115. (2005). Music: the key concepts. and
  116. (2002). Musical Identities and the school environmentʼ, in
  117. (2002). Musical Motivation: Towards a Model Synthesising the Researchʼ,
  118. (2002). Musical Potentialʼ,
  119. (2009). Musicians as lifelong learners: discovery through biographyʼ, see: (last accessed 12/3/10).
  120. (2003). Mutual learning and democratic action in instrumental music educationʼ,
  121. (1991). Never too late.
  122. (1987). Not Pulling Strings.
  123. (1995). Of Garage Bands and Song-getting: The Musical Development of Young Rock Musiciansʼ,
  124. (2003). OFSTED, fun and learning: a case study of a school music inspection',
  125. (1980). On Becoming a Rock Musician.
  126. (1996). On playing by ear',
  127. (1989). One other factor in the learning practices of these musicians should be mentioned here. Almost every member of the group spoke of the effect that teaching itself had had on their learning. Finnegan
  128. Only a minority of children actually begin learning musical instruments at all, and only a minute proportion of these learners persist to become skilled musicians. (Davidson et al., 1997: 190) Quite why some learners do persist is also not clear:
  129. (1998). Other writers suggest a similar relationship between autonomy and motivation
  130. (1995). Others researchers take a similar stance. For example, in her study of teenage garage bands, Patricia Shehan Campbell
  131. (1997). Parent involvement in childrenʼs education: a critical assessment of the knowledge baseʼ, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association,
  132. (2008). Patterns and consequences of gender interactions in instrumental music lessonsʼ,
  133. (2001). People and Music Participation Project: Practitioner Report and Summary of Findings, Unit for the Study of Musical Skill and Development,
  134. (2005). Performers as teachers: exploring the teaching approaches of instrumental teachers in conservatoiresʼ,
  135. (2006). Performing and teaching: the beliefs and experience of music students as instrumental teachersʼ,
  136. (2005). Peripatetic music teachers approaching mid-career: a cause for concern?ʼ,
  137. (1989). Playing by Ear: its Nature and Application to Instrumental Learningʼ,
  138. (2006). Pop and world music in Dutch music education: two cases of authentic learning in music teacher education and secondary music educationʼ,
  139. (1999). Popular Music and the Instrumental Ensembleʼ,
  140. (2006). Popular music education in and for itself, and for “other” music: current research in the classroomʼ,
  141. (1993). Private Life and Work: getting inside private music teachingʼ,
  142. (1995). Professional Musiciansʼ Orientations to Practice: Implications for Teachingʼ,
  143. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook.
  144. (2002). Qualitative Interviewing: Asking, Listening and Interpretingʼ,
  145. quoted by Mary Bousted (ATL General Secretary), see: http:// (last accessed 12/3/10).
  146. (1996). quoted in
  147. (2002). Real World Research.
  148. (2002). refers to how musicians typically learn to play rock and pop with the term ʻinformal learningʼ, yet Cope
  149. (2002). repeated rehearsal of the notation.
  150. (1995). Repeated Takes: A Short History of Recording and its Effects on Music. London and
  151. (2004). representative of nothing more
  152. (1995). Research and the Teacher: a Qualitative Introduction to School-based Research.
  153. (2005). Researching group assessment: jazz in the conservatoireʼ,
  154. (1991). Rock Culture in Liverpool. Oxford:
  155. (2002). Rock Steady: Are the 1960s solutions led by music-education specialists such as John Paynter and Keith Swanwick still in tune with today's society?',
  156. (1993). Running with the Devil: Power, Gender and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Connecticut:
  157. (2006). says, ʻit is difficult to believe that instrumental pupilsʼ learning needs would not be met more effectively by teachers who were trainedʼ (Mills,
  158. (2002). Schoolteacher: A Sociological Study.
  159. (1995). Semi-Structured Interviewing and Qualitative Analysisʼ,
  160. (1990). Settling Accounts with Subcultures: A Feminist Critiqueʼ
  161. (1997). Shadows in the Field : New Perspectives for Fieldwork in Ethnomusicology. New York and Oxford:
  162. (2007). simply because their interests have changed. When children give up collecting stamps, or roller blading, for example, they are not typically viewed as ʻfailuresʼ.
  163. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge:
  164. (2003). Social Constructionism. London and
  165. (1998). Songs in Their Heads: Music and its Meaning in Childrenʼs Lives.
  166. (2003). Sound Tracks: Popular Music, Identity and Place. London and
  167. Starting in early 2006, I conducted eight interviews and seven lesson observations, all of which were filmed. As table 2 shows, most of the data gathering took place in 2006, although eventually it extended over a period of almost three years.
  168. (2004). Student / teacher interaction in the one-to-one piano lessonʼ, unpublished PhD thesis,
  169. (1992). Studying Teachersʼ Lives: An Emergent Field of Enquiryʼ
  170. (1999). Subcultures or Neo-Tribes? Rethinking the Relationship between Youth,
  171. (2005). surprisingly few researchers have intruded into the privacy of oneto-one instrumental lessons to see what kinds of teaching materials and methods teachers use. Instrumental teachers are generally isolated
  172. (1969). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method.
  173. (1993). Teach you to rock?” Popular music in the university music departmentʼ,
  174. (2002). Teachers derive little consolation from this source; an 256 individualistic conception of practice exacerbates the burden of failure.
  175. (2003). Teachers' beliefs about effective instrumental teaching in schools and higher education',
  176. (1996). Teaching Music. London and
  177. Teaching myself was the first and most important part of my education. (Davis, 2005a: 13) The relationship between informal learning and formal education is discussed further
  178. (2006). Teaching popular music in Finland: what's up, what's ahead?ʼ,
  179. (1997). Techniques of Validation in Qualitative Research: a Critical Commentaryʼ, in
  180. (1979). Thank you! 269BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbs,
  181. (2005). That thing you do!" Compositional processes of a rock bandʼ,
  182. (2004). The “inside” and the “outside”: finding realities in interviewsʼ,
  183. (2002). The ability of music to embody the feelings and frustrations of adolescence is well documented; see for example Tarrant
  184. (2001). The Ambiguity of Play.
  185. (1965). The Blind Men and the Elephant:
  186. (2007). The British Recorded Music Industry
  187. (1997). The Challenges of Human Relationships in Ethnographic Inquiry: Examples from Arctic and Subarctic Fieldworkʼ,
  188. (2002). the childʼs sense of commitment and internal
  189. (1992). The guitarist Derek Bailey
  190. (1989). The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town. Cambridge:
  191. (1993). The idea that teaching might be, in itself, a learning practice is not one that has attracted much attention in the literature on informal learning, though Walser
  192. (2004). The impact of informal music learning practices in the classroom, or how I learned how to teach from a garage band',
  193. (1986). The Inner Game of Music.
  194. (2000). The Long and Winding Road: The Story of Rock Music in Scottish Schoolsʼ,
  195. (1986). The measurement of teacher/student interaction in private music lessons and its relation to teacher field dependence/independenceʼ,
  196. (2000). The Music Teacherʼs Companion. London: The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music.
  197. (1996). The Musical Temperament.
  198. (2008). The Olivetti Chronicles: Three Decades of Life and Music.
  199. (2002). The phenomena studied were independent of the researcher, who could make direct contact with them and provide knowledge of unquestionable validity.
  200. (1974). The Political Language of the “Helping Professions”ʼ,
  201. (1996). The Politics of Interviewing: Power relations and accepting the giftʼ,
  202. (2000). The question of who chooses which instrument a child will learn may be crucial to levels of motivation. It is a widely held belief (see, for example, Harris and Crozier,
  203. (1997). The relationship between interviewer and interviewee is inevitably ʻasymmetricalʼ
  204. (1995). The role of parents and teachers in the success and failure of instrumental learnersʼ,
  205. (1980). The same is true of learning practices. While Bennett
  206. (2002). The science and psychology of music performance: Creative strategies for teaching and learning.
  207. (1980). The second idea of Bennettʼs
  208. (2002). The Self-Identity of Young Musiciansʼ,
  209. (1984). The sociological eye.
  210. (1995). The Sounding Symbol.
  211. (1994). The struggle for culture: a sociological case study of the development of a national music curriculumʼ,
  212. (1997). The Way It Spozed To Be.
  213. (2005). The word “scary” was used by two, both of them seasoned principal players and soloists, as well as experienced teachers. 45 Another teacher felt that the fear of humiliation would deter prospective participants.
  214. (1993). The world of classical music has tended to dominate music education research; interest in the ʻmore informal, collective and “open”ʼ (Bjornberg,
  215. (1991). The wrong kind can be worse than noneʼ
  216. (2005). their musical views. A broad church is an essential element of a healthy musical community.
  217. (2004). there are other implications of introducing informal learning practices into the classroom. The title of Jaffursʼ
  218. (1998). There is clearly a sampling bias inherent in the idea that we consider worthwhile only research into prestigious, well-respected institutions (Becker,
  219. (2002). Therefore it is tempting to suggest that at least some of Grahamʼs problems stemmed simply from the fact that he taught in schools. Several researchers have considered the importance of the context in which learning takes place (see for example, Cope,
  220. (2002). They insist that influences from others are screened through 182 personal conceptions and subjected to pragmatic
  221. (1991). they learn because I teach it to them.ʼ...It is not enough for them to be helpful and useful to their students; they need to feel that their students could not get along without them (Holt,
  222. (1994). Thinking in Jazz: The Infinite Art of Improvisation. Chicago:
  223. (2002). This group of musicians then, like the ones in Greenʼs study, were unanimous as to the value of being able to play by ear. By contrast, they certainly did not stop using written resources ʻduring the first months or first couple of years of learningʼ
  224. (1997). This selectivity can indeed be misleading if not made explicit. To take one example which has already been referred to, ʻEnvironmental factors in the development of musical performance skill over the life spanʼ by
  225. (1993). this view is not unanimous among researchers. Other writers suggest that, while starting to learn by ear is crucial, many musicians in, for example, the fields of rock music (Walser,
  226. (2004). to know what will become of their words.
  227. (2002). To some extent - inevitably - my sample was limited simply to those who would agree to take part. As Green says about her own research: ʻclearly my own social class, gender, ethnicity, geographical location and so on affected the samplingʼ
  228. (2001). Touching Eternity: The Enduring Outcomes of Teaching.
  229. (1997). Toward a Mediation of Field Methods and Field Experience in Ethnomusicologyʼ,
  230. (1995). Treasonable or trustworthy text: Reflections on teacher narrative studiesʼ,
  231. (1998). Tricks of the Trade: How to Think about Your Research While Youʼre Doing It. Chicago and London:
  232. (2000). Tuning in: Practical Psychology for Musicians who are Teaching, Learning and Performing.
  233. (2001). Understanding Popular Music.
  234. (1996). Using Unseen Observations for an In-Service Teacher Development Programmeʼ,
  235. (2001). Variation in the Ways that Instrumental and Vocal Students Experience Learning Musicʼ,
  236. (2006). Vernacular music-making and educationʼ,
  237. (2001). Very little is known about the total number of ʻinformalʼ musical learners, and no figures are available for the relative numbers of boys and girls learning in this way. Considerably more girls than boys have instrumental lessons at school (OʼNeill,
  238. (1998). We canʼt have everything, for the most obvious practical reasons: we donʼt have the people to collect it and we wouldnʼt know what to do with the mass of detail weʼd end up with if we did.
  239. (1996). We know what Lilliestam means when he says: ʻrock music is in its whole character a music that is played by earʼ (Lilliestam,
  240. (1984). We need to give full and comparative attention to the not-yets, the didnʼt-quite-make-its, the not quite respectable, the unremarked and the openly “anti” goings-on in our society.
  241. (2002). We need to interview children too, at the very least.
  242. (1997). Whatʼs the Difference? Reflections on Gender and Research in Village Indiaʼ,
  243. (1990). Writing Strategies: Reaching Diverse Audiences.
  244. (1990). Writing Up Qualitative Research.
  245. (1991). Young Musiciansʼ Accounts of Significant Influences in their Early Lives. 2: Teachers, Practising and Performingʼ,
  246. (2003). Young people's music in and out of school',
  247. (2002). Youth identity and musicʼ,
  248. (2007). Youth-Subcultural Studies: Sociological Traditions and Core Conceptsʼ,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.