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Uoverensstemmelsen mellem internationale stofrelaterede strategier og den sociale virkelighed for kvindelige stofmisbrugere på Zanzibar, Tanzania

By Stine Andersen and Natashia Kamarainen

Abstract

Tanzania is located at the coastline of East Africa, and due to this location and a lack of border control the country acts as a transit for narcotic drugs coming from East Asia going to Europe and America. As a consequence there are a rising number of people addicted to drugs in Tanzania. In this thesis we examine the disconnections between WHO, UNODC, USA and Tanzania’s drug related strategies and the challenges faced by female drug addicts in Zanzibar. Furthermore we explain these disconnections and which consequences they have for the supply of treatment in Tanzania. The thesis consists of two analyses which compensate one another to show these disconnections. The empirical groundwork for the first analysis consist of strategies published by UNODC, WHO, USA and Tanzania and to examine these we use Mitchell Dean’s interpretation of Michel Foucault’s theory about governmentality. Based on this analysis it was evident that the international agencies use the approaches: ‘war on drugs’, ‘harm reductiom’ and ‘medicalization’. Furthermore we find that through these approaches the focus is rather on HIV and crime in Tanzania, and therefor lack focus on treatment and care for drug addicts. Through a discussion on globalization we conclude that the disconnections can be explained by the agencies’ concentration on issues that affect internatioal stability and security. HIV and crime affect international security – the individual drug addict in Zanzibar does not. In the second analysis we depict the challenges that female drug addicts face in Zanzibar. The empirical groundwork for this analysis is a combination of interviews, letters and reconstructed episodes recorded by Stine Andersen, who lived in Zanzibar for 12 months amongst the researched women. In order to comprehend the specific problems that these women face, we use Erving Goffman, Bruce Link and Jo Phelan’s theories about Stigma. Furthermore, we use Pierre Bourdieu’s theory about capital, field and habitus. Thus, connecting these two analyses we see that there are some great disconnections. The agencies’ focus on HIV and crime do not address the women’s problems related to the all-encompassing stigma against them and the challenges they face due to the patriarchal society they live in. Because of these disconnections and due to the neoliberal economy that Tanzania is pursuing, treatment and care for drug addicts is assigned to private NGOs. Through a discussion on the consequences of the aforementioned phenomena, we conclude that female drug addicts in Tanzania are being used and do not get the required treatment

Topics: stofmisbrug, kvinder
Year: 2015
OAI identifier: oai:rudar.ruc.dk:1800/22967

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