Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Internet and diasporic communication: Dispersed Nigerians and the mediation of distance, longing and belonging

By Abiodun Gabriel Adeniyi


This research investigates Internet uses and the potentials for transnational connections, for the development of a sense of nationalism, and for the construction of identity. Its focal point is on the case of the Nigerian diaspora. Though focussing mainly on the Internet, the role of other media are also highlighted in order to understand the\ud complexities of long distance communication and the meanings of mediated connection within the broader context of international communications. The work analyses migrant\ud uses and appropriations of media and communication technologies that enable a triangular framework of possibilities (i.) for longing and belonging, (ii.) for connecting migrants with Nigeria and (iii.) for shaping diasporic connections among the migrants in transnational and national contexts. The project employs qualitative and quantitative research methods, which include interviews, participant observation and survey, in an attempt to locate the practices and the meanings of Internet connections and online media activities

Publisher: School of Media and Communication (Leeds)
Year: 2008
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. 0.2002, The Internet Research Handbook A Practical Guide for students and Researchers in the Social Sciences. London:
  2. 1886, Family Television: Cultural Power and Domestic Television,
  3. 2000a, Against Race: Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Colour Line.
  4. 2000b, Between Camps nations, cultures, and the allure of race.
  5. 2005a, Transnational Television Worldwide Towards A New Media Order.
  6. (1999). A brief history of the future. London: Weidenfe1d and Nicholson.
  7. (2002). A nation online: how Americans are expanding their use ofthe Internet.
  8. (2000). A reporter at large: Black London"
  9. (2000). A Sociography of Diaspora"
  10. (2007). A system view of 'international' communication, its scope and limitations",
  11. Aa~: .1996, ."The Geography of Collective Identities in a Globalizing World,
  12. (2001). Access denied in the Information age.
  13. (2003). accessed at on 10/10/2006.239 and Accumulation
  14. Accessed online on 12/20/2007.
  15. (2004). Actor network theory and media:. ~o they connect ~nd on what terms?"
  16. (2004). Actual and Possible uses of cyberspace by and among states, diasporas and migrants". Accessed at!gps/vitual.diasporas/papers/smithpaper.html on 21/04/2007.
  17. (1992). Africa and Africans in the making ofthe Atlantic World, 1400-1800 (Second Edition). Cambridge:
  18. (1997). Africa Diaspora Conditioning: The case of LIverpool
  19. (1993). African Diaspora: Concept and Context".
  20. (2004). African Diasporas in the old and the new world: consciousness and imagination.
  21. (2002). African Intellectuals in the Belly ofthe Beast: Migration, Identity, and the Politics of Exile"
  22. (2004). African Migration to the United States: Dimensions of Migration, immigration, and exile". Accessed at http: on 22/03/2004.
  23. (2005). African Writers, Exile and the Politics ofa Global Diaspora", in West Africa Review
  24. (2000). Africans in the diaspora: the diaspora and Africa"
  25. (2004). Africans on the Move: Transnational, Intranational, and Metaphorical Migrations", accessed online at http://www.africanmigration.comlartic1es/editoriall.htm on 05/06/2005.
  26. (2002). Afrocentricity and the decline of Western hegemonic thought: A critique ofEurocentric theory and practice",
  27. (2004). After Empire: Melancholia or Convivial Culture?
  28. (2008). Aliens go Home': A Critical Media Analysis of the Chinese Migrants". Accessed online at papers/OO chinese migrant media analysis.pdfon 25/03/2008.
  29. (1976). An Anthropological Approach to the Afro-American Past. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study ofHuman Issues.
  30. and Hutchinson. (eds.) 2001, Understanding Nationalism.
  31. (2001). Anthropology and (the) Crisis: Re~pondin? to the Crisis in Afghanistan",
  32. (2004). Back to Hong Kong: Return migration or transnational sojourn? in Global Networks A journal of transnational affairs.
  33. (2003). Banal Transnationalism: The difference that Television makes",
  34. (1994). Beginning Qualitative Research: a Philosophic Guide.
  35. (1995). being digital.
  36. (2000). Beyond the Domestic: Constructing Ethnic Identities and Media Consumption in the Public Ethnic Space-The case of the Cypriot Community Centre in North London. Accessed online on 12/04/2006.
  37. (1999). Beyond the Horizon: Communication Technologies: Past, Present and Future.
  38. (2004). Beyond Westphalia: Nations and Diasporas. The C~se ofthe Muslim Umma". Accessed at http://www.]amaat-eislami.orglrr/nationsdiasporas-sayyid.html on 22/10/2004.
  39. (1971). Black Brotherhood: Afro-Americans and Africa.
  40. (1978). Black Folk Here and There (2 vols). Los Angeles: Canter for Afro-American Studies.
  41. (1971). Black Religion and the Redemption ofAfrica.
  42. (1967). Black Skin, White masks.
  43. (1974). Black Slaves in Britain. London:
  44. (1992). Blacks in the Diaspora: A case ofneglected catalyst in the achievement ofNigeria's foreign policy goals",
  45. (2002). Bridging the digital divide: technology, community and pubhc pohcy.
  46. (2005). Building diaspora: Filipino community fonnation on the Internet
  47. Cartographies ofDiaspora.
  48. (2006). Cities ofdifference: Cultural juxtapos.itions and urban politics of representation",
  49. (2000). Citizenship and Migration: Globalization and the Politics ofbelonging.
  50. (1998). Colonialism/Post Colonialism.
  51. (2001). Community: Seeking Safety in an Insecure World.
  52. (1996). Computer Networks as Social Networks",
  53. (1999). Conceiving and researching transnationalism",
  54. (2004). Conceptualizing nationalism",
  55. (1997). Conceptualizing the African Diaspora", Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. (Formerly South Asia Bulletin), Vol.XVII No 2. Accessed online on 12/04/2006.
  56. (1964). Concientism: Philosophy and Ideology for decolonisation.
  57. (2007). Conducting an in-depth Interview". Accessed online at on 26/01/2007.
  58. (2000). Containing Nationalism.
  59. (2004). Contemporary African Immigrants to the United States". Accessed at http://www.africanmigration.comlarticles/jtakourang.htm.
  60. (2000). Contemporary Nationalism: Civic, Ethnocultural, and Multicultural Politics.
  61. Cultural Anthropology and Sociology ofnon-Western SOCIeties, The Netherlands. Accessed at roots a routes.pdfon 15/04/2008.
  62. (1990). Cultural Identity and Diaspora"
  63. (1996). Cultures ofInternet virtual spaces, real histories, living bodies.
  64. (1999). Cyberpower: The Culture and politics ofcyberspace and the Internet. London and
  65. (2000). Cyberspace and the world we live in",
  66. (1978). D~ei!P~en~d~e~n~t-~~~===---== Underdevelopment.
  67. (2002). Dating the nation",
  68. (2006). Dear Reviewer, Dear Author: Looking for Reflexivity and Other Hallmarks of Interpretative Research". Prepared for delivery at the
  69. (1981). Decolonising the Mind: The Politics ofLanguage
  70. (2001). Defining the African Diaspora". Paper Presented to the Centre for Comparative Social Analysis Workshop,
  71. (2005). Diaspora and Hybridity.
  72. (1997). Diaspora and the Detours of Identity",
  73. (2000). Diaspora Migration: Definitional Ambiguities and a Theoretical Paradigm",
  74. (2003). Diaspora Politics: At home abroad. Cambridge:
  75. (2007). Diaspora, community and communication: Internet use in transnational Haiti". Accessed online at on 18/06/2007.
  76. (2007). Diasporas and Contra-Flows beyond nation-centrism"
  77. Diasporas and E~?nic Nations, Causes and Consequences of Globalization , at http://www2.hawall.edul-fredr/diaglo on 25/04/2006.
  78. (1991). Diasporas in Modern Societies: Myths of Homeland and Return"
  79. (1999). Diasporas",
  80. (2006). Diasporic Communities On-line: A Bottom up Experience of Transnationalism",
  81. (2004). Diasporicity in the City ofPortsmouth (UK): l,ocal and Global Connections ofBlack Britishness"
  82. (2002). Digital Divide: Civic Engagement, Information Poverty, and the Internet Worldwide.
  83. (1990). Dissemination: Time, Narrative and the Margins of the modem nation", in Homi
  84. (2005). Doing Anthropology in Cyberspace: Fieldwork Boundaries and Social Environments",
  85. (2005). Doing Qualitative Research, Second Edition.
  86. (2008). Doing ret1exivity: A critical guide for qualitative researchers in health and social science". Accessed at http: on 12/03/2008.
  87. (1995). Dynamics of Modern Communication, Th.e s~aping and Impact ofNew Communication Technologies.
  88. (1998). End of Millennium.
  89. (1999). Ethnic Differences in the Labour Market: a comparison of the SARs and LFS".
  90. (1991). Ethnicity and Nationalism: Theory and Comparison.
  91. (2003). Ethnicity in an Age ofDiaspora",
  92. (1989). Ethnicity: Identity and Difference",
  93. (1998). Ethnography: Step by Step.
  94. (2005). Ethnography"
  95. (1998). Evaluating diaspora: Beyond ethnicity",
  96. (1999). Flexible Citizenship: the cultural logics of transnationality. Durham NC:
  97. (2007). For a theory of nationalism", in Questions de Recherche/Research in Question. Accessed online at,
  98. (1998). Frames and Transformations in Transnational Studies" WPTC-98-02. Paper delivered to the ESRC Transnational Communities Programme Seminar in the Faculty ofAnthropology and Geography,
  99. (1999). Freedom of the media", in
  100. (1997). From Broadcast to Netcast: The Internet and the flow of political information.
  101. (1998). From Ethnic Media to Global Media: Transnational Communication Network Among Diasporic Communities"
  102. (2005). From internationalization to transnationalisation", in Global Media and Communication
  103. From National Movement to the Fully-formed Nation: The N a~Ion-buIldIng Process in Europe,"
  104. (1996). From Pilgrim to Tourist-or a Short History of Ident~ty ,
  105. (2001). From spaces of identity to mental spaces: lessons from Turkish-Cypriot cultural experience in Britain",
  106. (1994). Gastronomy or geology? The role ofnationalism in the reconstruction ofnations."
  107. (2002). General Criteria for the evaluation ofqualitative research articles". Accessed at l.html on 25/02/2008.
  108. (1997). Global Diasporas: An Introduction.
  109. (1999). GLOBAL ETHNOSCAPES: Notes and Queries for a Transnational Anthropology"
  110. (1995). Global Media, electronic landscape and cultural boundaries.
  111. (2007). Global news TV networks in Europe: a post-national perspective" Abstract and Handout, accessed at:
  112. (1999). Globalization and Culture.
  113. (2003). Globalization and hybridity: The construction ofGreekness on the Internet",
  114. (1998). Globalization and the Black Diaspora",
  115. (1997). Globalization from Below: The Rise ofTransnational Communities"
  116. (2003). Globalization, Migration and the New African Diasporas: Towards a framework of understanding".
  117. (1999). Globalization..." BBC Lord Reith Lecture series. Accessed at on 20/02/2004.
  118. (2000). Go with the flow: Diasporas and the Media", Television and New Media.
  119. (2004). Good Capital, Bad Capital: Dangers and Development in Digital Diasporas". Accessed at http://www.nautilus.orglgps/virtualdiasporas/paper/Baxandall.html on 27/10/2004.
  120. (2004). Hegemony and Transnational Practices of Nigerian Yorubas in Toronto", accessed at adeyanju.htm on 17/03/2004.
  121. (1999). Home and Away: Narrative ofmigration and Estrangement",
  122. (2000). Home is always elsewhere: Individual and communal regenerative capacities of loss",
  123. (1997). Home is where vou make it: Repatriation and diaspora culture among Iranians in Sweden",
  124. (1989). Home sweet home: A critical comment in Sounders and Williams"
  125. (2000). Home Territories, media, mobility and identity. London and
  126. (1999). Home, Exile, Homeland film, media and the politics of place.
  127. (2001). Homelands in a World of States",
  128. (1972). How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Tanzania:
  129. (1996). How to Research.
  130. (1981). Human Cargoes: The British Slave Trade
  131. (1995). Identifying Identity",
  132. (1999). Identity and deception in the virtual community" in
  133. (1997). Identity and difference.
  134. (1992). Identity and reality: the end of the philosophical immigration officer",
  135. Identity and the Media: Diasporic transnationalism and Mediated Spatialities.
  136. (2000). Identity Blues" in
  137. (2000). Identity: a reader.
  138. (2004). Ideology and policy: Notes on the shaping of the Internet",
  139. (2006). IfI have no money for travel, I have no need' Migration and Imagination",
  140. (1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the origins and spread ofNationalism.
  141. (1994). Imagining Home: Class,
  142. (1996). Immigrant America: A Portrait. California:
  143. (2006). Immigrant Voices in Cyberspace: spinning continental and Diaspora Africa into the World Wide Web". Accessed online on 11112/2006.
  144. (1997). Immigration theory in the new century: Some problems and opportunities"
  145. (1958). Independent African. Edinburgh:
  146. (1998). Information, Internet, and Community: Notes toward an Understanding of Community in the Information Age",
  147. (1975). Internal Colonialism.
  148. (1997). International Communication and Globalization, A Critical Introduction.
  149. (2007). Internet and the Nation-state". Accessed at 27/0512007.
  150. (2005). Internet Consumption in Ireland-Towards a 'connected' ~o~estic life",
  151. (2003). Internet Research Methods: A Practical Guide for the Social and Behavioural Sciences.
  152. (2007). Interpreting language and cultural discourse: Internet communication among Burundians in the diaspora". Accessed at http://muse.jhu.eduljoumals/africa today/v047/47.2kadende.html,
  153. (2000). Interviewing a practical guide for students and professionals. Milton Keynes:
  154. (2005). Interviewing and Focus Groups"
  155. (2000). Introduction to Research Methods.
  156. (1996). Introduction: Virtual Spaces, Real Histories and Living bodies"
  157. (1996). Introductory Sociology. Third Edition.
  158. (2006). Irregular migration in the UK an ippr fact file,
  159. (1999). It Aint Where you're From, It's Where you're at.... The Dialectics ofDiasporic Identification",
  160. (1958). Jean-Paul; translated by
  161. (2003). Laughter i.n the Rain: Jokes as membership and resistance
  162. (1998). Life Online; researching real experience in Virtual Space.
  163. (1995). liNationalism in Western and Eastern Europe Compared."
  164. (2001). Longing and belonging: issues of homeland in the Armenian diaspora". Accessed online on 08/03/2007.
  165. (2006). Manuel Castells The Theory of the Network Society.
  166. (2000). Mapping Diasporic Media across the EU: Addressing Cultural Exclusion." Key Deliverable:
  167. (2000). Mapping Minorities and their Media: The National Context-Greece". Accessed online on 12/04/2006.
  168. (2004). Mapping Yoruba Networks: Power and Agency in the Making ofTransnational Communities.
  169. (1998). Media Analysis Techniques. Second Edition.
  170. (2000). Media and Communication Research Methods an Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.
  171. (1999). Media and diasporas"
  172. (2006). Media Policy and Globalization: History,
  173. (2006). Media Policy and Globalization.
  174. (2000). Media Research Methods Measuring Audiences, Reactions and Impact.
  175. (1998). Media Technology and Society. A history: From the Telegraph to the Internet.
  176. (2005). Media, Technology And Everyday Life In
  177. (1998). Migrants of Identity: Perceptions of Home in a world ofmovement.
  178. (1999). Migration, Diaspora and Transnati'onalism,
  179. (1999). Migration, Diaspora and Transnationalism.
  180. (1979). Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative methods: Triangulation in action",
  181. (1992). Modernity and Identity Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  182. (1992). Modernity and its futures.
  183. (1991). Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and society in the late modem Age.
  184. (1996). Modernity at large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis and London:
  185. (2006). Murtala Mohammed". Paper delivered in
  186. (2002). Narratives of 'Home' and 'Homeland': The symbolic construction and appropriation of the Sudeten German Heirnat",
  187. (1990). Nation and Narration.
  188. (1991). National Identity.
  189. (1998). Nationalism and Modernism: A Critical Survey of Recent Theories ofNations and Nationalism.
  190. (1969). Nationalism and Social Communication. An Inquiry into the foundation ofNationality.
  191. (1985). Nationalism and the State.
  192. (2004). Nationalism in a Virtual Space: Immigrant Nigerians on the Internet". Accessed at on 22/03/2004.
  193. (1996). Nationalism Reframed Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. Cambridge:
  194. (2005). Nationalism: A very short introduction.
  195. (1992). Nationalism: five roads to modernity. Cambridge:
  196. (1989). Nationalism: Second edition.
  197. (1995). Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era.
  198. (1990). Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth and Reality. Cambridge:
  199. (1983). Nations and Nationalism.
  200. (1999). Nations without States.
  201. (2001). Negotiated Uses, contested meanings, changing identities: Greek Cypriot Media Consumption and Ethnic Identity Fonnation in North London". PhD Thesis, London School ofEconomics.
  202. (1998). New Diasporas: Dispersal and Regrouping of migrant communities.
  203. (1995). New Ethnicities",
  204. (2000). New Media, New Freedoms New Threats" in Gazette'
  205. (2004). New ties, old ties and lost ties: the use of the internet in diaspora",
  206. (2006). Nigeria-Related Financial Crime And Its Links With Britain. London: Chatham House report.
  207. (2004). Nigerians in the Diaspora: Cracking under pressure or adopting the culture of their host country". Accessed at on 28/04/2006.
  208. (2005). Observation",
  209. (2000). Official Reports/Special Studies • "Against Race-A Review" Cambridge:
  210. Olaudah. 1789, The African, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Eguino.
  211. (1975). On Capitalist Underdevelopment.
  212. (1999). On the notion of diaspora",
  213. (1983). On the validity ofInferences from Non-random Samples",
  214. (2001). Online Communication: Linking technology, identity and culture.
  215. (2000). Online Communities Designing Usability, Supporting Sociability Chichester:
  216. (2004). Ontological security in world politics, and Implications for the study ofEuropean security", prepared for the CIDEL Workshop,
  217. (2005). Palestine online: An emerging virtual homeland?"
  218. (1989). Participant Observation: A Methodology for Human Studies.
  219. (2004). Paul Gilroy's Slaves, Ships, and Routes: The Middle Passage as Metaphor". Accessed at http://iupjoournals.orglraVraI27-4.html on 22/10/2004.
  220. (1972). Pedagogy ofthe oppressed.
  221. (1968). Philosophy and Opinion.
  222. (1998). Pioneers of the Black Atlantic.: Five Slave Narratives from the enlightenment 1772-1815. Washington. D.C: Wl1sted and Taylor Publishing Services.
  223. (1993). Population Movements and the Third World.
  224. (2004). Postcolonial London: Reworking the metropolis.
  225. (1991). Press Freedom in Africa. West port, Connecticut:
  226. (1984). Privacy: studies in social and cultural history.
  227. (1997). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing amongst five traditions. Thousand Oaks,
  228. (1997). Qualitative inquiry: A dictionary of terms. Thousand Oaks,
  229. (2000). Questioning identity: gender, class, nation London and
  230. (2006). Questions on Nigerian diaspora remittances" article published in The Guardian Newspapers (of Nigeria) opinion page at on 15/08/2006.
  231. (2000). Race: A study In SOCIal dynamICS. 50 anmversary editi'onofcaste, class, and race.
  232. (2002). Racism: A Short History.
  233. (2006). Reflexivity in the research process: psychoanalytic observations", in International.
  234. (2001). Reimagining the nation-state: the contested terrains of nation-building.
  235. (2000). Religion and Diaspora". Paper presented at the conference on "New Landscapes of Religion in the West", School of Geography and the Environment, University ofOxford. Accessed online on 22/11/2007.
  236. (2008). Representation of Women in Nigerian Home Video Films: Construction and Reception.
  237. (1997). Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices.
  238. (2000). Researchers, Reflexivitv, and Good Data: Writing to Unlearn",
  239. (2005). Reshaping Geography: Palestinian Community Networks in Europe and the New Media", in Journal ofethnic and migration studies.
  240. (1996). Rethinking Diaspora(s): Stateless Power in the Transnational Movement"
  241. (2004). Rethinking the Concept of Diaspora: Mobility, Connectivity and Communication in a Globalised World"
  242. (2005). Roots and routes: Questions ofHome, Belonging and return in an Afghan
  243. (1997). Routes: Travel and Translation in the late 20 th Century.
  244. (1987). Science in action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society. Milton Keynes:
  245. (2007). Searching for fortune: the geographical process ofNigerian migration to Dublin, Ireland." Accessed online at on 02/02/2007.
  246. (2006). Seven pillars of media wisdom". Accessed online at on 24/11/2006.
  247. (2005). Sociable Hyperlinks: an Ethnographic Approach to Connectivity",
  248. (1988). Social Identifications: A social psychology ofintergroup relations and group processes.
  249. (2005). Social Research in Virtual Realities",
  250. (2004). Social Research Methodology, A cntIcal Introduction.
  251. (2003). Social Research Methods, Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.
  252. (1994). Social Theory and the Politics of Identity.
  253. (1982). Sociology, A brief but critical introduction,
  254. (1986). Some elements of a sociology of translation: domestication ofthe scallops and the fishermen ofSt. Brieuc Bay",
  255. (1994). Spaces of Dispersal"
  256. (1995). Spatial divisions of labour: Social structures and the geography ofproduction. 2nd edition.
  257. (2002). Survey Research Methods.
  258. (2000). Taking Identity Politics Seriously: 'The Contradictory, Stony Ground"
  259. (1997). Taming Modernity: Towards a New Paradigm"
  260. (2001). Techno-Politics and the Production of Knowledge: Democratic Activism and the Nigeria Exile", Research Paper ofthe First Claude Ake fellowships, submitted to the African Institute (AAl),
  261. (1994). Television and Everyday life.
  262. (1987). Television culture.
  263. (2003). Television for a New Global Order: Transnational Television Networks and the Formation of Global Systems",
  264. (1995). Television, Ethnicity and Cultural Change.
  265. (2004). That Word Diaspora", in The Irish Diaspora Studies Scholarly Network, accessed at
  266. (2005). The 'diaspora' diaspora"
  267. (1999). THE ~OCALAND THE GLOBAL: The Anthropology of GI~bal~zatIon~nd TransnatlOnalism",
  268. (1999). The African diaspora: African origins and New World identities.
  269. (1999). The African Diaspora: Toward an Ethnography of Diasporic Identification".
  270. (1993). The Age ofMigration: International Population Movements in the Modem World, Third Edition.
  271. (1993). The Black Atlantic; Modernity and Double Consciousness.
  272. (1992). The Black Man's Burden; Africa and the course of the Nation-State.
  273. (1977). The Break-up ofBritain.
  274. (1997). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order.
  275. (1973). The Coming of Post-Industrial Society.
  276. (1990). The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins ofCultural Change.
  277. (1990). The Consequences ofModernity. Cambridge: Polity.•
  278. (1988). The constitution of the home: towards a research agenda", in Housing Studies.
  279. (1997). The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism. Cambridge and New York:
  280. (2002). The Cultural Industries.
  281. (2001). The Death of Distance: How the Communication Revolution is changing our lives. Harvard:
  282. (1982). The Dialectic between Diasporas and Homeland",
  283. (2000). The Dialectics ofDiaspora Identification",
  284. (1998). The Emergence ofOn-line Community" in
  285. (2006). The Emergence ofSuper-Diversity in B~tain'.',
  286. (2003). The Enlargement of Meaning: Social Demand in a Transnational Context",
  287. (2005). The Ethics ofIdentity.
  288. (2000). The Ethnographic Imagination.
  289. (1991). The Global and the Local in International Communication",
  290. (1997). The Global Media: The New Missionaries ofCorporate Capitalism.
  291. (1998). The Good Research Guide for Small-Scale Research Projects.
  292. (1991). The Idea of Home: A kind of Space",
  293. (1999). The Igbo in Diaspora: The Binding Force of Information"
  294. (2000). The Indian Diaspora in the. USA and A.r~und the Web",
  295. (1996). The Information Highway: An Overview" in Cozic.
  296. The Internet Galaxy; Reflections on the Internet, Business, and Society.
  297. (2002). The Internet Research Handbook, A practical Guide for Students and Researchers in the Social Sciences. London:
  298. (1999). The Internet: A Philosophical Inquiry: London and
  299. (2000). The Internet: An ethnographic approach.
  300. (1998). The Landscape of qualitative research.
  301. (1994). The Location ofCulture.
  302. (2001). The Media and Cultural Production. London: Sage publications.
  303. (2003). The Media ofDiaspora,
  304. (1996). The nation: real or imagined": The Warwick Debates on Nationalism",
  305. (2006). The National Project, National studies information clearing house. Accessed at http://www.nationalismproject.orglabout.htm on 01/08/2006.
  306. (1999). The Network Society.
  307. (2001). The No-Nonsense Guide to International Migration.
  308. (2003). The No-nonsense guide to World Poverty.
  309. (2003). The Palestinian Diaspora, Formation of identities and politics ofhomeland.
  310. (2000). The Political Economy of the Twentieth Century". Translated by Pascale Ghazaleh. Accessed at on 20/04/2007.
  311. (2005). The Political Importance of Diaspo~as",.in Centre on Migration, Policy and Society. Working paper No13, University of Oxford. Accessed online on 20/12/2007.
  312. (2006). The Politics of Goods: A case study of consumer nationalism and media discourse in contemporary China",
  313. (2000). The Power ofIdentity.
  314. (2004). The Presentation ofSelfin Everyday Life". Accessed at on 05/05/2007.
  315. (2002). The Revolution will be digitized: Afrocentricity and the digital public sphere",
  316. (1996). The Rise of the Network Society.
  317. (2004). The Rough Guide to the Internet. London: Rough Guide Limited.
  318. (2004). The Sage Dictionary of Cultural Studies.
  319. (2004). The Shackled Continent: Africa's Past, Present, and Future.
  320. (1997). The Social Impact of Computers.
  321. (2000). The Sugar You Stir..."
  322. (1985). The Symbolic Construction ofCommunity.
  323. (2000). The trajectory ofthe self',
  324. (1983). The Trouble with Nigeria.
  325. (2000). The Turbulence of Migration.
  326. (2007). The UK- Nigeria Remittance Corridor Challenges of Embracing Formal Transfer Systems in a dual financial Environment". Washington D.C.:World Bank Working Paper No. 2. • Herskovits,
  327. (2005). The Uses of Cultural Studies.
  328. (1993). The virtual community: homesteading on the electronic frontier.
  329. (2004). The Virtual Self A Contemporary Sociology.
  330. (2005). The Yoruba Diaspora in the Atlantic World". Accessed at!~iupress/books/0-253-34458 1.shtml on 11/09/2006.
  331. (2000). Theories ofNationalism: A critical Introduction.
  332. (2003). Theorizing Diaspora London'
  333. (1999). Theorizing the Hybrid. Summer,
  334. (1987). There ain't no black in the Union Jack.
  335. (2000). This House has Fallen Nigeria in crisis. London:
  336. (2003). Through the looking glass: intersubjectivity and hermeneutic reflection",
  337. (2000). Time and Identity: the Legacy of Biafra to the Igbo in diaspora"
  338. (2001). Time, Habit and Repetition in Day-t~-Day life'.'
  339. (1999). Times ofTechnoculture from the Virtual life. London and
  340. (2006). To them that hath: corruption and the destruction of Africa", Paper delivered in
  341. (1992). Towards a Transn;tional Perspective on Migration: Race, Class, Ethnicity and Nationalism Reconsidered. New York: The New York Academy ofSciences.
  342. (2000). Trans-nationalism and the politics of Belonging. London and
  343. (2006). Transnational Communication and Defamatory Speech: A case for establishing norms for the twenty-first century. Accessed at on 20/06/2??7.
  344. (2000). Transnational Communication and Diaspora Communities",
  345. (1998). Transnational practices and the analysis of the global system", Seminar delivered for the Transnational Communities Programme Seminar Series,
  346. (2004). Transnational spaces and everyday lives "in Royal Geographical Society (with The Institute ofBritish Geographers).
  347. (2001). Transnationalism and identity"
  348. (1998). Transnationalism from below",
  349. (2002). Turning Brain Drain into Brain Gain: Personal Reflections on Using the Diaspora Option",
  350. (2004). U.S. Imperialism, Europe, and the Middle East". Accessed at on 20/04/2007."A
  351. (2004). Understanding home: a critical review ofthe literature", in The Sociological Review.
  352. (2001). Understanding Media: The Extension of Man.
  353. (1997). Understanding Social Research: Perspectives on Methodology and Practice. London and Washington: The farmers'
  354. (1997). Understanding Social Research: Perspectives on Methodology and Practise. London and Washington: The Farmers'
  355. (1997). Ungrounded empires: the cultural politics of modem Chinese transnationalism.
  356. (2006). Use of Constant Comparative Analysis in qualitative research",
  357. (2004). Virtual Africans and New Diasporic Discourse"-IAMCR Porto Alegre,
  358. (2005). Virtual Citizenship and diasporic discourse" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Australian and New Zealand Communication Association, Christ Church, New Zealand. Accessed online 26/06/2005.
  359. (2004). Virtual Communities: Abort, Retry, Failure?" Accessed at http: on 15/11/2004.
  360. (1997). Virtual culture: identity and communication in Cybersociety. London: Sage publications.
  361. (2000). Virtual Ethnography.
  362. (2000). Virtual Ethnography. London: Sage publications.
  363. (1996). Virtual Realities and their Discontents. Baltimore and London:
  364. (1999). Virtual States: The Internet and the boundaries of the nation-state.
  365. (2005). Web Sphere Analysi~: An Approach to Studying Online Action",
  366. (2003). Web Theory An Introduction.
  367. (1996). What is a Nation?"
  368. (1999). What is Identity (as we now use the word)". Accessed at 07/03/2007.
  369. (2005). Whoever Looks Always Finds: Transnational Viewing and Knowledge-Experience",
  370. (1996). Women in Nigeria: An Annotated Bibliography. Connecticut:
  371. (2001). Your Research Project, A Step-by-Step Guide for the FirstTIme Researcher.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.