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Enabling technologies for MRI guided interventional procedures

By Gregory Scott Fischer

Abstract

This dissertation addresses topics related to developing interventional assistant devices for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). MRI can provide high-quality 3D visualization of target anatomy and surrounding tissue, but the benefits can not be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties associated with the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. Discussed are potential solutions to the inability to use conventional mecha- tronics and the confined physical space in the scanner bore. This work describes the development of two apparently dissimilar systems that repre- sent different approaches to the same surgical problem - coupling information and action to perform percutaneous (through the skin) needle placement with MR imaging. The first system addressed takes MR images and projects them along with a surgical plan directly on the interventional site, thus providing in-situ imaging. With anatomical images and a corresponding plan visible in the appropriate pose, the clinician can use this information to perform the surgical action. My primary research effort has focused on a robotic assistant system that overcomes the difficulties inherent to MR-guided procedures, and promises safe and reliable intra-prostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. The robot is a servo pneumatically operated automatic needle guide, and effectively guides needles under real- time MR imaging. This thesis describes development of the robotic system including requirements, workspace analysis, mechanism design and optimization, and evaluation of MR compatibility. Further, a generally applicable MR-compatible robot controller is de- veloped, the pneumatic control system is implemented and evaluated, and the system is deployed in pre-clinical trials. The dissertation concludes with future work and lessons learned from this endeavor.

Topics: Prostate Interventions, Image Overlay, MRI Compatible Mechatronics, Computer Assisted Surgery, Medical Robotics
Publisher: jhu
Year: 2008
OAI identifier: oai:jscholarship.library.jhu.edu:1774.2/33427
Provided by: JScholarship
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