Data sources: Databases up to 2004, PsychINFO,\ud ERIC, MEDLINE, CINHL, C2-SPECTR, Cochrane\ud Central Register of Controlled Trials and\ud Dissertation abstracts. Search terms used stutt*,\ud stam*, therap*, intervene*, fluen*, dysfl*, disfl.\ud Study selection and assessment: Studies were\ud included if (a) the participants were diagnosed as\ud persons who stutter, (b) the treatment method was\ud behavioral, (c) there were outcomes of speech\ud behavior, and (d) the participants were randomly\ud assigned to an experimental and control (or comparison\ud condition) before the intervention. In terms\ud of quality assessment, the following data were\ud extracted from each included study: (a) intervention\ud implemented as described; (b) who administered the\ud outcomes measure; (c) participant recruitment procedure;\ud (d) subject assignment procedure; (e) method\ud of random assignment; and (f) blinding. Two\ud reviewers independently coded each study using\ud separate copies of the article. Disagreements were\ud resolved through discussion between the two raters.\ud If the disagreements persisted, the article was given\ud to a third reviewer until the disagreement was\ud resolved.\ud Participants: Participants diagnosed as people who\ud stutter (PWS), the treatment methods were behavioral,\ud outcomes were measured in terms of speech and\ud participants were randomly assigned to an experimental\ud and control (comparison) condition. Studies\ud with clutterers were excluded. Both children and\ud adults were included. No pharmacological treatments\ud were included. No restriction was imposed on\ud intensity or duration of intervention. Only randomised\ud controlled trials were included.\ud Outcomes: Typically speech production specifically\ud stuttered words or syllables per minute. Independent\ud coding was completed for participant, outcome,\ud treatment and design characteristics. Effect sizes were calculated by subtracting the post-test means\ud of the intervention and control groups and dividing\ud by the pooled standard deviation. Studies were\ud weighted for sample size. The Q statistic was used\ud to assess homogeneity. Sensitivity analyses were\ud also carried out
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