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Consumer-driven sustainable tourism: towards incospicuos consumption.

By Sofia Reino and Monika Schröder


Introduction\ud Life in the typical affluent modern market economy is associated with high spending\ud power and extensive consumer choice. Social comparison, competition and rivalry at\ud work, and stress all drive consumer choice (Layard, 2005). The resultant status race is\ud invariably associated with conspicuous consumption (Veblen, 1899), i.e. consumption\ud that is demonstrative and signals an individual’s position in the social pecking order.\ud Consumer satisfaction with goods, services and experiences is derived from one of\ud several types of consumer value, which are either extrinsically or intrinsically\ud motivated. Extrinsic value may be understood as a means to some end, whereas\ud intrinsic value is enjoyed for its own sake (Holbrook, 1999). Another characteristic of\ud extrinsic value is that it can be pursued deliberately, as is typical for conspicuous\ud consumption.\ud Recreational activities offer opportunities for people to rebalance their lives through\ud less conspicuous consumption, associated with more intrinsic consumer value.\ud However, as intrinsic consumption value is more transitory, less predictable and less\ud self-conscious than extrinsic value, products designed to deliver it present a particular\ud challenge, nowhere more so than in terms of branding and marketing. This is\ud exacerbated where tourism is concerned, because consumption takes place away from\ud the familiar home environment and because it is not routine. Thus the tourist is likely\ud to be in

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