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The influences of the western missionaries toward Taiwan education in the late 19th century

By L&#275 and 賴李麗芳

Abstract

摘 要 美國教育家杜威(John Dewey)講:「教育就是生活。」(Education as a Necessity of Life)英國教育家斯賓塞(Herbert Spencer)提出 「生活預備說」,認為:「教育是為著未來ê生活做準備。」台灣ê教育ná親像台灣ê歷史歷盡滄桑;tī長期殖民教育政策下,教育ê重心佇叨位?所beh達成ê目的是什麼?就「教育就是生活」ê理念來看,lán ê教育長期出現嚴重ê偏差,值得歷史te̍k來思考。 荷蘭、西班牙時期教育ê背後是為著培養殖民統治ê順民;明鄭時期教育ê目的是beh收攬民心並且為著beh培養官員;佇清朝統治下,接受教育m̄是為著科舉就是為著實際生活kap工作ê需要。日治時期為著培育日本統治下ê皇民,對台灣人採取隔離kap歧視ê教育方式,驚台灣人分享總督府權力以及質疑總督府ê政策,所以為著培育高等教育預備教育ê中學,一直無開放hō.台灣子弟。國民黨執政教育是以黨國化ê方式來經營ê。 清代臺灣教育ê建置kap發展,是用儒學kap書院做重心來發展,教導儒家思想做主流ê理念,教育ê目的是為著參加科舉做準備,功名富貴是siōng大ê願望。19世紀尾期西方宣教師進入台灣,為著宣教ê需要帶入新ê教育模式。基督教tī臺灣ê發展thang追溯到荷蘭統治ê時代,但是真正ē-tàng發揮khah久長koh全面性ê影響力是tī清朝尾期以後。清朝尾期傳入臺灣ê基督教以長老教會為主,長老教會用台中大甲溪做隔界,分做南、北教會。南部屬英國長老教會,1865年開始tī台南、高雄地區宣教,馬雅各醫師是第一位宣教師;北部屬加拿大長老教會,ùi 1872年起,佇淡水、臺北等所在傳教,馬偕牧師是北部宣教ê中心人物。後來其他宣教師續接來到台灣從事宣教事業,對án呢亦開展台灣ê西化教育開端。 佇西方傳教師帶入來ê教育體制下面,教育理念、制度、目的、功能上kap傳統教育有真濟ê差別,西式教育phah破傳統教育佇教育對象、課程、制度等方面ê限制,以及傳教師佇教育上奉獻ê精神,對受教者帶來無kāng ê影響,亦帶入現代化 ê教育理念。Abstract American educator John Dewey presents “Education as a Necessity of Life.” English educator Herbert Spencer states “Preparation for Life as Aim of Education.” The education in Taiwan has suffered a lot as the history in Taiwan. After experiencing the long-term colonial education, we have lost the focus and aim of our own. Our education system continuously goes far from the concept of “Education as a Necessity of Life”, which deserves a historical thinking. In the colonization of Taiwan by Dutch and Spain, the education system was actually for training people obedience. In the Kingdom of Tungning, the education system was for getting closer to people and cultivating government officials. Under the rule of the Qing Dynasty, the education system was for the imperial examination and the work-life needs. During the Japanese colonial period, Japanese government provided Japanese higher education in secondary schools and isolated Taiwan people from accepting education. Therefore, Taiwan people would not have the abilities to violate the ruling of the Japanese government. In the formation period of Republic of China, the education system in Taiwan was monopolized by the policies of Chinese National Party. The education system in Qing Dynasty developed the mainstream concept of Confucianism and colleges. The purpose of education aimed at the imperial examination for the succeeding fame and fortune. In the end of 19th century, western missionaries entered Taiwan and brought the new mode of education for missionary needs. The development of Christianity in Taiwan could be traced back to the reign of Dutch, but it played a more everlasting and comprehensive influence later in the end of Qing Dynasty. In the late Qing Dynasty, Presbyterian Church performed the main role of Christianity in Taiwan, which was divided into North and South Church by the boundary of Taichung Dajia River. The southern Taiwan belonged to English Presbyterian Church. The first missionary James Laidlaw Maxwell began his preach from Tainan and Kaohsiung since 1865. The northern Taiwan belonged to Canada Presbyterian Church. The missionaries brought missionary teachings from Tamsui and Taipei since 1872; George Leslie Mackay performed as the central figure among them. Later on, other missionaries continuously arrived and launched the western influence in Taiwan education. The western education system brought by the missionaries differed from the traditional Taiwan education system in the teaching concepts, structures, purposes, and functions. The western education system showed the devotion of the missionaries and the modernized educational concepts for the learners by breaking the traditional limitations in the educational objects, curriculums, and systems.目 錄 致 謝 i 摘 要 ii Abstract iii 目 錄 iii 表 次 iv 第一章 緒論 1 第一節 研究動機kap目的 1 第二節 研究範圍kap方法 1 第三節 文獻回顧kap探討 2 第四節 逐章內容概述 5 第二章 台灣早期ê教育發展 6 第一節 荷蘭時期 6 第二節 西班牙時期 9 第三節 明鄭時期 11 第四節 清領時期 13 第三章 傳統教育kap西式教育ê比較 25 第一節 實用導向kap智識充實 25 第二節 階級教育kap全民教育 38 第三節 道德教化kap全人教育 45 第四章 西式教育帶來ê衝擊 51 第一節 母語教育 51 第二節 現代化教育理念 59 第三節 宗教家教育精神 67 第五章 結論 76 第一節 19世紀尾期台灣ê教育 76 第二節 延伸思考 77 參考書目 79 附錄 8

Topics: 台灣府城教會報, 教育, 清季教育, 清季台灣宣教師, 白話字, Taiwan Church News, Education, Education in Qing Dynasty, Missionary in Taiwan in Qing Dynasty, Vernacular
Year: 2016
OAI identifier: oai:ir.lib.nchu.edu.tw:123456789/85966
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