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「後山」書寫:以花蓮地區文學為探討對象

By Yu-Syuan Sie and 謝毓軒

Abstract

90年代中期以後地方書寫在臺灣文學中形成一股潮流,以臺灣東部地區為背景的文本也相繼出現,並不約而同以「後山」做為臺灣東部的代稱。以東部卅後山地區為背景的文本中,對後山地區的形象描述,展現出其獨特性質,此「後山形象」大致上不脫離落後、自然、原始、弱勢、邊緣這些概念。 本文以描述當代花蓮地區範圍的文本為主要探討對象,主要討論「後山形象」的獨特性是如何生成與發展及影響當代,並探究其在當代文學文本中不斷被再製與複製的目的。本文共分五章,除緒、結論之外,第二、三、四章為論述重點,第二章以方梓的《來去花蓮港》,探討文本中以日治中期後山初遭遇現代化開發的歷史背景與後山形象的生成、在地化之間的關係性。並探討小說以漢人女性做為後山開發歷史的主角,與後山形象中的邊緣概念相結合的可能性。 第三章以吳豐秋的《後山日先照》探討後山形象的發展過程。以文本當中展現日治後期至國民政府來臺統治初期,後山開始有多族群移入為背景,討論眾多族群如何藉由後山形象促進與他族群文化加速融合,再次創造出獨特的新後山形象,並在最後連結對後山形象的認同進而將後山視為故鄉。 第四章以吳明益《家離水邊這麼近》、廖鴻基《山海小城》中對當代花蓮環境以及開發問題的憂慮書寫,探討後山地區產業發展與後山形象建構之間的相關性,觀看文本中後山地區因受現代化影響造成自然環境被破壞的結果,同時分析作者如何使用後山形象對東部的現代化開發與環境保護如何兼顧提出何種看法。並以後山環境被破壞的現狀與後山形象「淨土」概念相比較,探討當中的差異與問題。最後以吳明益與廖鴻基的環境保護哲學,試圖找尋未來後山現代化發展中在環境保護與開發之間持得平衡的可行性。 本文透過上述分析,看到後山形象的發展過程,不論是從日治時期至當代,皆展現後山形象不斷影響後山地區的現代化開發,同時後山地區現代化開發緩慢又再次複製後山形象,當中表現出後山形象的變化與現代化開發之間的關係是密不可分,並且持續相互影響從未間斷。In the mid 1990s, the writing of regional literature became a trend in Taiwanese literature. The literatures focused on the eastern Taiwan had gradually mushroomed at that time. These literatures coincidentally named the eastern Taiwan the “Back Mountain.” Among these literatures, the “Back Mountain image” generally adopted the concepts of backwardness, nature, primitive, disadvantage, and periphery. This research explores and focuses on the contemporary literatures of Hualien area. This research mainly discusses the uniqueness of the “Back Mountain image” and its origin, development, and impact to the modern age, and investigates the goal for its constant recreation and duplication in the texts of contemporary literature. This dissertation divides into five chapters. Except for the chapters of introduction and conclusion, chapter two, three, and four are the key parts. Chapter two uses Fang Zi’s “Go to Hualien Harbor” as the text to explore the historical background of the early stage of the exploitation in the Back Mountain area during the Japanese-governed period, the origin of the Back Mountain image, and its relevance to the localization. This chapter also talks about the role of the female Han-Chinese in the exploitation history of the Back Mountain and the possibility of its combination with the concept of borderland in the Back Mountain image. Chapter three explores the development of the Back Mountain image by Wu Feng-Qui’s “The Sun Shines First Behind the Mountain.” The time frame of this literature is from the later stage of Japanese-governed period to the early stage of the ROC re-instated in Taiwan. During this period, many ethnics began to immigrate to the Back Mountain. Under this background, this literature discusses how these ethnics improve and accelerate their integration with the others, create the specific new image of the Back Mountain, and acknowledge the Back Mountain area as their motherland. Chapter four uses Wu Ming-Yi’s “So Much Water So Close to Home ” and Liao Hong-Ji’s “The County nearby Mountain and Sea” as the text to explore the contemporary environmental problems in Hualien area. These literatures discuss the relevance between the agricultural development and the construction of the Back Mountain image. From these texts, I observe the consequence of environmental devastation caused by the modernization in the Back Mountain area; at the same time, I analyze the author’s opinion on how to give a consideration to the modernization and environmental protection simultaneously. Then, I discuss the differences and problems by a comparison between the current status of the environmental devastation in the Back Mountain and the concept of “pure land” in the Back Mountain image. Finally, I try to find out the possibility of the balance on the exploitation and environmental protection in the future from Wu Ming-Yi and Liao Hong-Ji’s philosophy on environmental protection. From the above analyses, we can observe that the Back Mountain image constantly influences the exploitation and modernization in the process of its development, from the Japanese-governed period to nowadays; meanwhile, the slow progress on the exploitation of the Back Mountain area reproduces the Back Mountain image again. It shows us that the evolution of the Back Mountain image and the modernization and exploitation in that area are closed linked and inseparable and continuingly interplay with each other.目次 第一章 緒論........1 第一節 研究動機與目的.....1 第二節 研究範圍與方法.....3 第三節 文獻回顧與探討.....3 第四節 各章內容之概述.....10 第二章 後山形象的生成:《來去花蓮港》日治移民記憶........13 第一節 看待「後山」的視角:漢人移民從山前至後山的轉折與改變.......14 一、 山前對於後山的想像....16 二、 到達後山時對於花蓮港的印象......19 三、 後山形象的翻轉與再製..20 第二節 後山形象與女性的共構...24 一、 女性的後山挑戰敘事....24 二、 女性與後山形象的結合...25 第三節 邊陲後山形象的生成與意義......26 第三章 後山形象的在地化發展:以《後山日先照》為探討對象..29 第一節 族群融合經驗的再現:後山形象與漢人移民融合的關係性.......30 一、 作為他鄉的後山:移民經驗展現....31 二、 移民在後山的交會......32 第二節 後山形象對移民的文化發展影響與在地認同.. 38 一、 後山形象影響在地共同經驗........38 二、 移民經驗創造新的後山形象........40 第三節 當代「原鄉」概念之鬆動與當代省思........ 44 第四章 後山形象對當代花蓮開發及環境問題的影響:以《家離水邊這麼近》、《山海小城》為討論對象......47 第一節 花蓮地區產業發展與後山形象建構.. 48 第二節 後山形象的差異:「淨土」的後山與「環境毀壞」的後山.......53 第三節 後山的未來發展:自然與建設之間的平衡點.. 58 第四節 後山形象與當代發展概念........63 第五章 結論........65 參考書目......7

Topics: 後山, 後山形象, 臺灣東部, 移民, 族群, Back Mountain, Back Mountain Image, Eastern Taiwan, Immigration, Ethnics
Year: 2016
OAI identifier: oai:ir.lib.nchu.edu.tw:123456789/85931
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