Chronic inflammation is characterized by the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in obese adipose tissue.Accumulations of adipose tissue macrophages enhance a chronic inflammatory state in adipose tissues. Many studies haveindicated that the adipocyte-related inflammatory response in obesity is characterized by an enhanced infiltration of macrophages.The aim of this work was to study the inhibitory effects of garcinol and pterostilbene on the change in inflammatory response dueto the interaction between 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages. In the TNF-α-induced 3T3-L1 adipocyte model,garcinol and pterostilbene significantly decreased the mRNA expression of COX-2, iNOS, IL-6, and IL-1β and IL-6 secretion bysuppressing phosphorylation of p-IκBα and p-p65. In a coculture model of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages,pterostilbene suppressed IL-6 and TNF-α secretion and proinflammatory mRNA expression and also reduced the migration ofmacrophages toward adipocytes. In the RAW 264.7 macrophage-derived conditioned medium (RAW-CM)-induced 3T3-L1adipocyte and 3T3-CM-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage models, pterostilbene significantly decreased IL-6 and TNF-α secretionand proinflammatory mRNA expression (COX-2, iNOS, IL-6, TNF-α, PAI-1, CRP, MCP-1, resistin, and leptin). Our findingssuggest that garcinol and pterostilbene may provide novel and useful applications to reduce the chronic inflammatory propertiesof adipocytes. We also found that pterostilbene inhibits proinflammatory responses during the interaction between 3T3-L1adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages
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