To unravel possible protective effects of a newly isolated lotus plumule polysaccharide (LPPS) on type 1 diabetes (T1D), this study isolated LPPS and administered it to non-obese diabetic (NOD) female mice for 15 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance, serum ketone body, glucose, insulin, and lipid levels, as well as pancreatic islet cell numbers and the insulin secretion ability of the experimental mice were determined. The results showed that LPPS administration in vivo significantly (P < 0.05) increased pancreatic islet cell numbers and slightly enhanced the basal insulin secretion ability compared to the control group. LPPS administration improved serum lipid profiles in the diabetic mice via relatively increasing serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, but decreasing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total cholesterol levels. The present study suggests that LPPS supplementation may ameliorate T1D progress and its complications through protecting pancreatic islets and modulating serum lipid profiles
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