A compact nano-TiO2 underlayer is formed on atitanium (Ti) foil through a two-step H2O2 + NaOH soakingpretreatment. This underlayer effectively suppresses thecharge recombination reaction on the photoanode side, whichis attributed to efficient electron transfer due to good adhesionbetween Ti and nano-TiO2. It also enhances the electricalcontact with screen-printed TiO2 mesoporous film due to surfacenanostructure. Both fill factor and short-circuit current densityare improved, and accordingly the power conversion efficiencyof dye-sensitized solar cell is enhanced by 22%
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