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Pregnant with Madness-Ophelia's Struggle and Madness in Hamlet

By Yi-Chi Chen

Abstract

在《哈姆雷特》一劇中,莎士比亞運用了瘋狂來描述整個家庭與宮廷所深陷其中的風暴。肇始於克勞迪亞的篡位及亂倫的婚姻,劇中如哈姆雷特及奧菲麗亞等的角色皆經歷了背叛,憎恨,及狂怒的痛苦。即使始終被定位成次要的角色,瘋狂的奧菲麗亞在本劇中展現了女性角色在努力建構屬於自己的聲音的所面臨的掙扎。綜觀全劇,奧菲麗亞經歷了三個不同的階段。由缺乏自我意識的溫馴女兒到忽然顯現出粗鄙性格的誘餌,以及最後成為掙脫了父權壓制而得以自由的表現出內心真正的悲傷與掙扎的瘋癲女子!她的瘋狂起始於被哈姆雷特拋棄及她父親的死亡。而也因此,瘋狂對她而言所展現出的是一個因失去父之名而茫然失措的心靈以及其後她所努力再建構的自我主體。本文藉由探討在她的瘋癲語言中不僅富含深意且另有它指的特性來主張對她來說,瘋狂的語言代表著她逐漸掙脫父權主宰的束縛並建立能夠表達自我的女性語言。同時,她的瘋狂也可解讀為與哈姆雷特的同化。藉此同化,奧菲麗亞得以重拾已逝的感情。即便她的瘋狂語言並不為其他人所理解或接受,卻是她努力重建自我主體的歷程。最後,她那戲劇性的死亡象徵著一種與自我合為一體的自我情結。也因為歌楚那專屬於女性哀悼方式所呈現的敘述,奧菲麗亞得以在最後重獲她純真的名聲。Madness in "Hamlet" is one of the crucial themes for Shakespeare to depict the chaotic turbulence in the Hamlet family and the court of Denmark. Due to Claudius's usurpation of the Old Hamlet's crown and queen, characters such as Hamlet, Ophelia, and Gertrude suffer seriously from betrayal, resentment, and enragement. Even though she is generally read as a minor character in "Hamlet", Ophelia in madness reveals particularly the struggle of the female character that endeavors to have a voice of her own. Throughout the play, Ophelia displays a three-phased transformation from Polonius' timid daughter who lacks the will of her own, to the seducer on mission who suddenly reveals the bawdy part of her nature and, finally to the mad woman who liberally expresses her oppressed feelings and sorrow with lyrics and songs. Lost in her failed love with Hamlet and sorrow from the death of her father, Ophelia's madness represents the destructed mind without the Name-of-the-Father and the reconstruction of her liberated subjectivity. Through the analysis of her language which is both pregnant in and with madness, her madness is interpreted as the means to express her real being without the patriarchal manipulation. Also, her madness can be read as the assimilation with Hamlet since it is how she revives Hamlet's love. Even though her insanity cannot be properly read by others, Ophelia struggles to constitute a subject of her own through madness. Finally, her dramatic death symbolizes the Narcissus-like combination of her own images and the opportunity to recover her name of innocence with Gertrude's narration which belongs specifically to the kind of female mourning

Topics: 瘋狂, 父之名, 同化, 自我主體, madness, the Name-of-the-Father, assimilation, subjectivity
Publisher: 臺中市:國立中興大學外國語文學系
Year: 2014
OAI identifier: oai:ir.lib.nchu.edu.tw:11455/81301
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