Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Comparison of nitrogen budget models between organic duck-rearing paddy field and conventional paddy field

By 趙湘怡 and Hsiang-Yi Chao

Abstract

隨著環保意識的抬頭,以及擔憂稻作過程中化學合成物對人體產生有害影響 ,於民國34到60年間常見的傳統水耕法-合鴨有機農法,又再度風行於台灣農村。不同於慣行農法,合鴨有機農法屏棄了農藥以及化學肥料,利用合鴨取食害蟲、踩踏水田抑制雜草生長,並增加水中溶氧量。同時,合鴨糞便也能減少有機肥料使用量,降低溢流入環境的營養。本實驗的目的在建構,奉行有機耕作精神的合鴨農法之氮收支模式,了解稻作期間的氮流失量、田區內固氮能力以及對福壽螺等害蟲的抑制結果,較之慣行田是否能減少對環境的衝擊,維護地力。實驗結果顯示,在排水曬田時流失的氮素量,合鴨田區為57.79 g m-2,慣行田區則為62.79 g m-2,顯示慣行田流失的氮素較合鴨田多。合鴨田及慣行田在收割後之單位氮素淨收支均為正值,合鴨田區系統為8.7 g m-2,慣行田則為21.4 g m-2,慣行田較合鴨田高,表示休耕後的慣行田會徑流出更多的氮素到環境中。影響田區土壤氮素變化量的因素中,以固氮量為最大宗,合鴨田區總計64.06 g m-2,慣行田區則為54.07 g m-2,顯示合鴨田區的土壤間固氮力比慣行田區好。慣行田區若不施灑苦茶粕,便無法控制福壽螺生長數量;反觀合鴨田區的福壽螺數量在合鴨取食下,一直維持在每m2 面積單位僅有0~2顆螺的狀態。綜合實驗結果顯示,不施灑農藥、使用有機肥料的合鴨農法,不僅更能控制福壽螺等害蟲數量,較之慣行田,更降低了農耕活動流失氮素對環境的衝擊,達成地力永續經營的目的。Owning to the rise of environmental consciousness and concerns about harmful effects of chemical compounds on the human body during agricultural processes around the whole world, the traditional rice-duck organic farming, the common agricultural methods in rural area between 1945 and 1971, becomes popular again in Taiwan. Different from conventional farming, the method of rice-duck organic farming uses ducks instead of pesticides and chemical fertilizers to feed pests and stamp paddy fields for suppressing weed and increasing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. Meanwhile, as a result of the reducing the amount of organic fertilizer, the duck organic farming can diminish the amount of nutrient overflowing into the environment. By building up the nitrogen budget model of rice-duck organic farming, the purpose of this study is to understand whether rice-duck organic farming can reduce the impact of fertilizer on the environment and maintain fertility by comparing nitrogen loss during the processes of cultivation and the capability of fixed nitrogen and the inhibition of apple snails and other pests between rice-duck organic and conventional farming. The results showed that the amount of nitrogen loss during the drainage is 57.79 g m-2 in duck paddy field and 62.79 g m-2 in conventional paddy field respectively. The amount of soil nitrogen was 8.7 g m-2 in duck paddy field and 21.4 g m-2 in conventional paddy field, which indicated the latter would release more nitrogen into the environment during the fallow. Nitrogen fixation was the dominating factor affecting the change in the amount of soil nitrogen. There were 64.06 g m-2 in duck paddy field nitrogen and 54.07 g m-2 in conventional paddy field of nitrogen fixed in the soil, which suggested rice-duck paddy field had better capability of nitrogen fixation in the soil. Without spilling tea-seed meal, the number of apple snails would be out of control; on the contrary, the number of apple snails in the duck paddy field had been maintained in 0-2 per m2 by duck feeding. In the conclusion, compared to conventional paddy farming, duck farming, without pesticide and chemical fertility, not only showed more control over the number of apple snails and other pests, but also reduced the environmental impact by the loss of nitrogen produced from agricultural activities, to likely achieve sustainability agricultural use.摘要 i Abstract ii 目次 iv 表目錄 vi 圖目錄 vii 第一章 緒論 1 1.1. 研究動機 1 1.2. 研究目的 2 1.3. 研究流程 2 第二章 文獻回顧 6 2.1. 氮的循環 6 2.1.1. 硝化作用(Nitrofication) 6 2.1.2. 脫硝作用(Denitrification) 6 2.1.3. 礦化作用 (Mineralization) 7 2.1.4. 同化作用 (Assimilation) 7 2.1.5. 固氮作用 (Nitrogen Fixation) 7 2.2. 水稻田中的氮收支 7 2.2.1. 肥料種類及農藥 8 2.2.2. 鴨糞輸入來源 9 2.2.3. 水稻田間固氮量 9 2.2.4. 水稻植物體的氮素累積量 10 2.2.5. 水稻田中氮的流失途徑 10 2.3. 育種秧苗 11 2.4. 水稻生育階段 11 2.5. 福壽螺 12 第三章 材料與方法 18 3.1. 試驗區簡介 18 3.1.1. 試驗區地理位置及氣候 18 3.1.2. 試驗區灌溉水路情況 18 3.1.3. 樣品採集時程: 19 3.1.4. 樣品採集地點: 19 3.2. 採樣分析項目及方法 19 3.2.1. 田區環境因子項目檢測 19 3.2.2. 水質採集與分析 19 3.2.3. 土壤採集與分析 20 3.2.4. 植物體採集與分析 20 3.3. 計算參數引用 20 3.4. 統計分析 21 3.4.1. A、B、C三田差異性統計分析 21 3.4.2. 合鴨田區與慣行田區差異性統計分析 21 第四章 實驗結果 26 4.1. 環境因子檢測結果 26 4.1.1. 溫度 26 4.1.2. 水中酸鹼值 26 4.1.3. 水中溶氧量 27 4.1.4. 水中導電度 27 4.1.5. 水中懸浮微粒值 27 4.1.6. 土壤氧化還原電位 28 4.2. 水中氮素採集結果 28 4.2.1. 水中硝酸態氮 28 4.2.2. 水中銨態氮 29 4.2.3. 水中顆粒性氮 30 4.3. 土壤中氮素 31 4.4. 土壤中氮、碳百分比 32 4.5. 稻穀及植物體含氮百分比 33 4.6. 各田區氮收支統整結果 33 4.7. 各田區福壽螺數量增減 34 第五章 討論 62 5.1. 各田區氮收支統整 62 5.1.1. 合鴨田與慣行田氮收支變化 62 5.1.2. 土壤中氮素濃度檢測結果探討 62 5.1.3. 稻穀及植物體含氮百分比結果探討 63 5.1.4. 水中氮素採集結果 64 5.2. 田區間福壽螺數量 66 5.3. 土壤的碳含量 66 第六章 結論 71 第七章 實驗檢討與建議 72 參考文獻 73 附錄 7

Topics: 合鴨農法, 慣行農法, 氮收支, 固氮, duck organic farming, conventional farming, nitrogen budget, nitrogen fixation
Publisher: 生命科學院碩士在職專班
Year: 2014
OAI identifier: oai:ir.lib.nchu.edu.tw:11455/81141
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.airitilibrary.com/P... (external link)
  • http://hdl.handle.net/11455/81... (external link)
  • http://tw.image.search.yahoo.c... (external link)
  • http://www.taifer.com.tw/08/08... (external link)
  • http://hoya.myweb.hinet.net/ht... (external link)
  • http://organic.niu.edu.tw/03-p... (external link)
  • http://www.duck-field-rice.org... (external link)
  • http://tw.myblog.yahoo.com/org... (external link)
  • http://www.yuanli.gov.tw/Place... (external link)
  • http://www.ncl.edu.tw/mp.asp?m... (external link)
  • Suggested articles


    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.