Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol

By Rainie L Sharpe, Melissa Drolet and Deborah L MacLatchy


Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit). The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control) by intra-peritoneal SilasticĀ® implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC) lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T) and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p < 0.001). 14C-Acetate incorporation into cholesterol and cholesterol esters was not significantly different among treatment groups for male and female fish, however, 14C-enrichment was higher than expected in both triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA). FFA incorporation was significantly higher in male control fish than either beta-sit or E2 treatments (p = 0.005). Plasma cholesterol concentration was significantly increased in the male beta-sit treatment group compared to controls (p = 0.027). These results indicate gonadal de novo cholesterol biosynthetic capacity is not disrupted by beta-sit or E2 treatment in early recrudescing male or female goldfish, while plasma cholesterol and steroid concentrations are sensitive to beta-sit exposure

Topics: Research
Publisher: BioMed Central
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g... (external link)
  • Suggested articles


    1. Cholesterol biosynthesis, storage, and mobilization in steroidogenic organs.
    2. (1997). Clark BJ: The role of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in steroidogenesis. Steroids
    3. (1993). Cox MM: Principles of biochemistry. 2nd edition.
    4. (1979). Crim LW: Reproductive endocrinology of fishes: gonadal cycles and gonadotropin in teleosts. Ann Rev Physiol
    5. (1982). Croxatto HB: A five-year clinical trial of levonorgestrel silastic implants (Norplant TM). Contraception
    6. (1995). Der Kraak G: Effects of the phytoestrogen bsitosterol on the reproductive endocrine status of goldfish. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
    7. (1997). Der Kraak G: Exposure to bsitosterol alters the endocrine status of goldfish differently than 17B-estradiol. Environ Toxicol Chem
    8. (1998). Der Kraak G: Use of a series of homologous in vitro and in vivo assays to evaluate the endocrine modulating actions of b-sitoserol in rainbow trout. Aquat Toxicol
    9. (1992). Der Kraak GJ: Protocol for measuring circulating levels of gonadal sex steroids in fish. Can Tech Rept Fish Aquat Sci
    10. (1995). Der Kraak GJ: Protocol for measuring in vitro steroid production by fish gonadal tissue. Can Tech Rept Fish Aquat Sci
    11. (2006). DLM: b-sitosterol and 17b-estradiol alter gonadal steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Gen Comp Endocrinol
    12. (1983). Drevon CA: Transport of cholesterol. Physiol Rev
    13. (1980). Effects of sex steroids on plasma lipids in the goldfish, Carassius auratus.
    14. (1995). Environmental Biology of Fishes.
    15. (1985). ER: The roles of the intestine and liver in the biosynthesis of plasma lipoproteins in the rainbow trout, Salmo Gairdnerii richardson. Comp Biochem Physiol
    16. (1977). Fange R: Cholesterol and free fatty acids (FFA) in the blood of marine fish. Comp Biochem Physiol
    17. (1982). FF: The role of lipoproteins in steroidogenesis and cholesterol metabolism in steroidogenic glands. Endocrine Reviews
    18. (2004). Hobbs HH: Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis by plant sterols.
    19. (1982). Idler DR: Synthesis of lipids by the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdner) ovary in vitro.
    20. (1979). JF: Regulation of de novo biosynthesis of cholesterol and progestins, and formation of cholesteryl ester in rat corpus luteum by exogenous sterol.
    21. (1999). JH: Comparing biological responses to mill process changes: a study of steroid concentrations in goldfish exposed to effluent and waste streams from a canadian bleached sulphite mill. Wat Sci Tech
    22. (1989). JM: Plasma lipoproteins in fish.
    23. (1989). Kwiterovich PO: Increased sitosterol absorption, decreased removal, and expanded body pools compensate for reduced cholesterol synthesis in sitosterolemia with xanthomatosis.
    24. (1996). Ladipo OA: Multicenter clinical trial on the efficacy and acceptability of a single contraceptive implant of nomegestrol acetate, Uniplant. Contraception
    25. Lipid analysis: Isolation, separation, identification and structural analysis of lipids. 3rd edition.
    26. (2003). MacLatchy D: In vivo implants b-sitosterol cause reductions of reactive cholesterol pools in mitochondria isolated from gonads of male goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gen Comp Endocrinol
    27. (2003). MacLatchy DL: Effects of a phytosterol mixture on male fish plasma lipoprotein fractions and testis P450scc activity. Gen Comp Endocrinol
    28. (2000). Maclatchy DL: Endocrine responses of Fundulus heteroclitus to effluent from a bleached-kraft pulp mill before and after installation of reverse osmosis treatment of waste stream. Environ Toxicol Chem
    29. (2006). MacLatchy DLM: Lipid dynamics in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during a period of gonadal recrudescence: effects of b-sitosterol and 17b-estradiol exposure. Comp Biochem Physiol
    30. (2002). MS: SREBPs: activators of the complete program of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in the liver.
    31. (1998). Naftolin F: Reproductive actions of phytoestrogens. Bailliere Clin Endocrinol
    32. (1985). Regulation of luteal cell 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity by estradiol. Biol Reprod
    33. Reproductive endocrinology of fish. In Fundamentals of comparative vertebrate endocrinology Edited by: Chester-Jones IIPMPJG.
    34. (1978). Rogie A: The isolation and partial characterization of the serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of the rainbow trout.
    35. (1965). The biological synthesis of cholesterol. Science
    36. (1968). The goldfish. London , Faber and Faber;
    37. (1987). Tocher DR: The lipid composition and biochemistry of freshwater fish. Prog Lipid Res
    38. (1990). TP: Seasonal correlative changes between sex steroids and lipid levels in the freshwater female catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).
    39. (1981). Two-stage, one-dimensional thin layer chromatographic method for separation of lipid classes.
    40. (2002). Wustner D: Intracellular cholesterol transport.

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.