Many of the conditions noted in examination of the blood of patients with thalassemia minor are much like those observed in patients with iron deficiency anemia. A study was made of similarities and contrasts between blood and bone marrow features in both conditions for purposes of differential diagnosis. A salient distinction is that bone marrow hemosiderin is present in normal amount in patients with thalassemia minor, but not in those with iron deficiency anemia. If therapy with iron does not restore hemoglobin values to normal, thalassemia minor is strongly suspect. Even in the latter disease, however, there may be small fluctuations in hemoglobin values, particularly in pregnancy. One must be alert to this possibility lest a slight, fleeting increase in hemoglobin be mistakenly ascribed to iron therapy
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