The full potential in catalyst development will only be realized if characterization techniques are available that can probe materials with subnanometer resolution. One of the most employed techniques to image heterogeneous catalysts at the nanometer and subnanometer scale is transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As suggested by the name, TEM uses electrons transmitted through the object for imaging. Since the interaction between electrons and matter is very strong, only thin parts, commonly much less than a micron in thickness, are imaged. Since heterogeneous catalysts are, in most cases, structured on a much smaller length scale, the sample thickness can be reduced to TEM requirements by appropriate preparation techniques and is, therefore, no limitation
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