Theoretical work has shown that the isobole method is not generally valid as a method for testing the absence or presence of interaction (in the biochemical sense) between chemicals. The present study illustrates how interaction can be tested by fitting a toxicodynamic model to the results of a mixture experiment. The inhibition of cholinesterases (ChE) in human whole blood by various dose combinations of paraoxon and methamidophos was measured in vitro. A toxicodynamic model describing the processes related to both OPs in inhibiting AChE activity was developed, and fit to the observed activities. This model, not containing any interaction between the two OPs, described the results from the mixture experiment well, and it was concluded that the OPs did not interact in the whole blood samples. While this approach of toxicodynamic modeling is the most appropriate method for predicting combined effects, it is not rapidly applicable. Therefore, we illustrate how toxicodynamic modeling can be used to explore under which conditions dose addition would give an acceptable approximation of the combined effects from various chemicals. In the specific case of paraoxon and methamidophos in whole blood samples, it was found that dose addition gave a reasonably accurate prediction of the combined effects, despite considerable difference in some of their rate constants, and mildly non-parallel dose-response curves. Other possibilities of validating dose-addition using toxicodynamic modeling are briefly discussed
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