Acquired immunity is an important factor in the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in the developing world, apparently limiting symptomatic infection to children of less than two years. However, also in developed countries the highest incidence is observed in children under five years and the majority of Campylobacter infections are asymptomatic, which may be related to the effects of immunity and/or the ingested doses. Not accounting for immunity in epidemiological studies may lead to biased results due to the misclassification of Campylobacter-exposed but apparently healthy persons as unexposed. In risk assessment studies, health risks may be overestimated when immunity is neglected
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