Background: Several studies have investigated the relationship between executive functions and arithmetic. However, in what way they are connected is still uncertain. Aim: The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the development of multiplication, particularly the use of (advanced) strategies and accuracy in children with above average, average and below average shifting capacities. Method: Children from seven primary schools participated in eight sessions in which they answered 15 multiplication questions. The strategy they used was observed and noted. Shifting was measured by the Animal shifting task and the Sorting task. Results: Results of repeated-measures ANOVA’s showed that no significant differences were found between the three groups in their use of (advanced) strategies. Significant results were found between groups for accuracy (one-tailed). Conclusions: The development in strategy use seems the same for children with above average, average and below average capacities in shifting. However in accuracy, children with above average and average shifting capacities had compared to children with below average capacities overall more right answers. Further research with a larger sample is recommended
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