Abstract The aim of this study was to examine whether stress moderates the difference in parenting skills before and after a parent-training, for mothers of children with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Stress could influence how much parents learn from a parent training. The parent training is the Dutch version of the ‘Incredible Years’ training by Webster-Stratton, aimed at improving parenting skills and reducing aggressive behaviour of the children (Webster-Stratton, 2001; 2002). Four measurements were conducted, before and after the training and at one and two years after the training. Participants were selected on the basis of completed Child Behaviour Checklists 1½-5 (CBCL; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000). Children and their parents were invited to participate if the children scored above the 80th percentile on the CBCL. They were assigned to the intervention group (N=72) or to the non-intervention group (N=72). The participants in the intervention group and non-intervention group were matched on the basis of six characteristics (aggression, IQ, sex, address density, stress of the parents and educational level of the parents). Results showed that the `Incredible Years´ parent training improved mothers parenting skills on the long term. Furthermore total stress measured before the training had no significant moderating influence on mothers parenting skills. From the correlations, T-tests and further testing however, it was clear that different sources of stress have quite different relations with parenting skills, for example diminishing parenting skills or improving them. In the future, it is advisable to separate different forms of stress, as different kinds of stress relate differently to parenting skills
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