This research looked at whether the assessment of parental education should be adjusted to the migration context in order to better reflect children’s “hidden talents”, and for more substantive comparisons concerning ethnic differences in educational outcomes. Accordingly, a measurement of parental education which assesses the relative educational achievement of parents in comparison with the population in the country where they have obtained their education is constructed. This measurement is used to reevaluate the ethnic differences in educational outcomes based on the PISA 2003 and 2006 studies. With cross-classified multilevel analysis, we showed that the relative educational achievement of parents plays a positive role in explaining their children’s achievement. Moreover, as expected, the difference in performance between the native and the first-generation immigrant children increases when controlled for this measurement
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