This thesis deals with ‘difficult groups’ in survey research, which are currently under-represented groups in survey research. The focus is on ethnic minorities and people living in non-private households. Ethnic minorities are under-represented in survey research because they have below-average response rates. Nonresponse has the potential to bias survey estimates and thus threaten the validity of survey results. In this thesis strategies to reduce nonresponse among ethnic minorities are developed. Among others, in a large-scale experiment conducted by Statistics Netherlands, incentives are used as an instrument to decrease nonresponse rates in survey research. People living in non-private households are excluded from the sample frame before the actual survey is conducted. In a large pilot study the possebility of conducting survey research among residents of homes for the elderly and nursing homes, the two largest groups living in non-private households, is investigated. Moreover, the potential bias of excluding these groups from standard survey research is examined
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