African trypanosomiasis is a severe and always fatal disease, when left untreated. It is spread by tsetse flies that transmit the pathogen to humans and animals during feeding. The disease was largely brought under control, but civil unrest in large parts of Africa disturbed surveillance programs and other effective control measures. Nowadays, the incidence is increasing again, almost reaching the same numbers as one hundred years ago. In the western part of Africa the causative agent is Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, while T. b. rhodesiense is responsible for outbreaks in the south-eastern part of Africa. Uganda is the only known country where both pathogens are found, making it a very interesting study area. This review focuses on the situation in Uganda by describing the pathogen, the vector, and the hosts involved in this disease-system. It addresses the use and effectiveness of control measures and discusses modeling strategies that help to gather knowledge and predict the effectiveness of control measures
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