Background: Self-esteem is the mediator for many social skills interventions. Children with antisocial behaviour, however, have different levels of self-esteem. Where research used to focus on the link between low self-esteem and antisocial behaviour, there now is a movement towards the side of high self-esteem and antisocial behaviour. The role of this mediator in reducing the antisocial behaviour at these different levels of self-esteem is investigated in this research. Aim: The aim of this research is to determine whether improvement of self-esteem is linked to reduction of aggression and if this effect can be found in children who already have a high level of self-esteem at the beginning of the intervention. Method: Selected were 88 Dutch children from 50 different primary schools. There was a two-step selection. The teacher was approached to fill in the Teacher Report Form (TRF) for approximately four children who they found to be the most antisocial in class. The children with the highest score on the TRF were selected to participate to the Alles Kidzzz training. Results: Significant differences have been found between the effects of the training at the different levels of self-esteem. Children with a low or average level of self-esteem have a related improvement of self-esteem and reduced aggression. Children with a high level of self-esteem seemed to have no benefits of the training in measures of self-esteem and aggression. Conclusions: Interventions that aim to reduce aggression by improvement of self-esteem should take into account that it could not be effective for children with a high level of self-esteem. Instead research is needed to investigate how social skills interventions can be effective for these children
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