In this study, the structure of effortful control (the inhibition of a dominant response\ud and activation of a subdominant response) was examined. Studied was how components of\ud effortful control relate to conduct problems and hyperactivity. Effortful control was measured\ud in 3-year-old children (N=89) with an observational measure, the Effortful Control Battery\ud (ECB), and with a parent report, the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ). Principal\ud component analysis showed that the ECB measures two constructs, which can be labelled as\ud Self-Control and Attention/Motor Control. The five scales of the CBQ appeared to measure\ud one construct, which is a more general measure of effortful control. The constructs of the\ud ECB as well as the scales of the CBQ were differently related to conduct problems and\ud hyperactivity. In the future, it is important to keep in mind that effortful control is composed\ud of heterogeneous components that all have their own unique value
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