Abstract The aim of this study was to explain tolerance towards Muslims from an inter-group perspective. Explanatory mechanisms were derived from integrated threat theory, social identity theory, and the contact and multiculturalism hypotheses. Our results, based upon survey data on Dutch youth, revealed that endorsement of multiculturalism and perceived symbolic and safety threat are the main determinants of tolerance. Furthermore, we compared the explanatory model for people with a negative attitude towards Muslims with the model for people having a neutral or positive attitude. Except that perceived safety threat did not have an effect on tolerance judgements for non-negative people, the same model could be applied
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