Nitrification is an important process in the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen,\ud linking its reduced and oxidized parts. Since the conversion of ammonium to\ud nitrate has a great impact on the environment, such as weathering of soils,\ud production of greenhouse gases, and eutrophication of surface and ground waters, it is important to know the characteristics of\ud the responsible organisms. Although many organotrophic microorganisms are\ud able to produce oxidized nitrogenous compounds such as nitrite and nitrate,\ud chemolithotrophic nitrifying bacteria are considered to be the most important\ud group producing these compounds from ammonia. A contribution to nitrate\ud production by organotrophic microorganisms has only been observed in some\ud acid coniferous forest soils
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