For chains of harmonic oscillators with random masses a set of equations is derived, which determine the spatial Fourier components of the average one-particle Green's function. These equations are valid for complex values of the frequency. A relation between the spectral density and functions introduced by Schmidt is discussed. Exact solutions for this Green's function and the less complicated characteristics function-the analytic continuation into the complex frequency plane of the accumulated spectral density and the inverse localization length of the eigenfunctions-are derived for exponential distributions of the masses. For some cases the characteristic function is calculated numerically. For gamma distributions the equations are cast in the form of ordinary, higher order differential equations; these have been solved numerically for determining the characteristic function. For arbitrary mass distributions a cumulant expansion and a peculiar symmetry of the Green's function are discussed.\ud \ud The method is also applied to chains where the spring constants and/or the masses have random values. Also for these systems exact solutions are discussed; for exponential distributions, e.g., of both masses and spring constants the characteristic function is expressed in Bessel functions. The relation with certain random relaxation models is shown. Finally, X-Y Hamiltonians with random exchange constants and/or magnetic fields-or, equivalently, tight-binding electron models with diagonal and/or off-diagonal disorder-are considered. Here the Green's function does not depend on the wave number if the distribution of exchange constants is symmetric around the origin. New solutions for the characteristic function and Green's function are derived for a number of cases, including exponentially distributed magnetic fields and power law distributed exchange constants
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