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Two-dimensional modeling of subduction zone anisotropy with applications to southwestern Japan

By M.L. Long, B.H. Hager, M.V. de Hoop and R.D. van der Hilst

Abstract

We present a series of 2-D numerical models of viscous flow in the mantle wedge induced by\ud a subducting lithospheric plate. We use a kinematically defined slab geometry approximating\ud the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath Eurasia. Through finite element modelling\ud we explore the effects of different rheological and thermal constraints (e.g. a low-viscosity\ud region in the wedge corner, power law versus Newtonian rheology, the inclusion of thermal\ud buoyancy forces and a temperature-dependent viscosity law) on the velocity and finite strain\ud field in the mantle wedge. From the numerical flow models we construct models of anisotropy\ud in the wedge by calculating the evolution of the finite strain ellipse and combining its geometry\ud with appropriate elastic constants for effective transversely isotropic mantle material.We then\ud predict shear wave splitting for stations located above the model domain using expressions\ud derived from anisotropic perturbation theory, and compare the predictions to ∼500 previously\ud published shear wave splitting measurements from seventeen stations of the broad-band F-net\ud array located in southwestern Japan. Although the use of different model parameters can have\ud a substantial effect on the character of the finite strain field, the effect on the average predicted\ud splitting parameters is small. However, the variations with backazimuth and ray parameter of\ud individual splitting intensity measurements at a given station for different models are often\ud different, and rigorous analysis of details in the splitting patterns allows us to discriminate\ud among different rheological models for flow in the mantle wedge. The splitting observed in\ud southwestern Japan agrees well with the predictions of trench-perpendicular flow in the mantle\ud wedge along with B-type olivine fabric dominating in a region from the wedge corner to about\ud 125 km from the trench

Topics: Aardwetenschappen, deformation, finite-element methods, seismic anisotropy, shear wave splitting, subduction zone, upper mantle
Year: 2007
OAI identifier: oai:dspace.library.uu.nl:1874/23125
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