Decades ago, in 1959, dopamine was found to be an essential neurotransmitter. In the years that followed, dopaminergic\ud neurotransmission turned out to be critical for normal motor-, motivational- and reward-related functions. Nowadays it is\ud known that dopaminergic signaling is not restricted to point-to-point synaptic contacts, but also involves volume transmission,\ud which requires synaptic spillover of released dopamine to reach distant target cells through extracellular diffusion.\ud Consequently, dopaminergic neurotransmission critically depends on exocytotic release and neuronal uptake of dopamine, as\ud well as on diffusion away from the release site. Once target cells are reached, dopamine can bind to and activate dopamine\ud receptors. The subsequent cellular response depends on the type of dopamine receptor that is activated and the signal\ud transduction mechanisms that are coupled to these receptors
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