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Competition and Dispersal in Predator-Prey Waves

By N.J. Savill and P. Hogeweg


Dispersing predators and prey can exhibit complex spatio-temporal wave-like patterns if the\ud interactions between them cause oscillatory dynamics. We study the effect of these predator-\ud prey density waves on the competition between prey populations and between predator popu-\ud lations with different dispersal strategies. We first describe 1- and 2-dimensional simulations\ud of both discrete and continuous predator-prey models. The results suggest that any population\ud that diffuses faster, disperses farther, or is more likely to disperse will exclude slower diffus-\ud ing, shorter dispersing, or less likely dispersing populations, everything else being equal. It also\ud appears that it does not matter whether time, space, or state are discrete or continuous, nor\ud what the exact interactions between the predators and prey are. So long as waves exist the\ud competition between populations occurs in a similar fashion. We derive a theory that\ud qualitatively explains the observed behaviour and calculate approximate analytical solutions\ud that describe, to a reasonable extent, these behaviours. Predictions about the cost of dispersal\ud are tested. If strong enough, cost can reverse the populations' relative competitive strengths\ud or lead to coexistence because of the effect of spiral wave cores. The theory is also able to\ud explain previous results of simulations of coexistence in host-parasitoid models (Comins,\ud H. N., and Massell, M. P., 1996, J. Theor. Biol. 183, 19-28)

Topics: Biologie, spatial pattern formation, oscillations, individual oriented models, spiral waves, turbulence
Year: 1998
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