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Una Escuela desconocida del exilio: la polémica en torno al Instituto Hispano Mexicano Ruiz de Alarcón = An unknown school of exile: the controversy surrounding the Instituto Hispano Mexicano Ruiz de Alarcón

By Sandra García de Fez

Abstract

Amb l'arribada dels exiliats republicans espanyols, Mèxic consolidà el suport a la Segona República Espanyola, i va fer del país un lloc de refugi per als perseguits per la repressió franquista. Un nodrit grup de docents formaven part d'aquest col·lectiu, i bona part d'ells trobaren treball i una continuïtat a la seva activitat pedagògica als centres educatius creats per les institucions republicanes a l'exili. L'Instituto Ruiz de Alarcón fou un dels primers a instituir-se i el de més curta existència (1939-1943). El seu controvertit tancament no pot ser entès sense considerar l'escenari polític de l'exili i l'exercici dels organismes d'ajuda establerts ad hoc. La polèmica entre dos socialistes adversaris, Indalecio Prieto i Juan Negrín, era al fons de la clausura de l'Instituto i la fundació del Colegio Madrid. Jesús Revaque Garea, personatge clau en aquesta qüestió, fou nomenat supervisor d'afers educatius per la Junta de Auxilio a los Republicanos Españoles (JARE) i realitzà un demolidor informe al voltant del Ruiz de Alarcón i presentà un projecte detallat per a un nou col·legi. Als tràngols propis de l'exili, calia afegir les polèmiques polítiques que entenebrien encara més la tan anhelada unitat republicana, tan necessària per recuperar el projecte republicà frustrat.Con la llegada de los exiliados republicanos españoles, México consolidó el apoyo a la Segunda República Española, haciendo del país un lugar de refugio para los perseguidos por la represión franquista. Un nutrido grupo de docentes formaban parte de este colectivo y buena parte del cual encontró trabajo y una continuidad a su actividad pedagógica, en los centros educativos creados por las instituciones republicanas en el destierro. El Instituto Ruiz de Alarcón fue uno de los primeros en instituirse y el de más corta existencia (1939-1943). Su controvertido cierre no puede ser entendido sin considerar el escenario político del exilio y el ejercicio de los organismos de ayuda establecidos ad hoc. La polémica entre dos socialistas adversarios, Indalecio Prieto y Juan Negrín, estuvo en el fondo de la clausura del Instituto y la fundación del Colegio Madrid. Jesús Revaque Garea, personaje clave en esta cuestión, fue nombrado supervisor de asuntos educativos por la Junta de Auxilio a los Republicanos Españoles (Jare) y realizó un demoledor informe sobre el Ruiz de Alarcón presentando un proyecto pormenorizado para un nuevo colegio. A los trances propios del exilio, se les unían las polémicas políticas que ensombrecían aún más, la tan anhelada unidad republicana tan necesaria para recuperar el proyecto republicano malogrado.With the arrival of the exiled Spanish Republicans, Mexico consolidated the support of the Second Spanish Republic, making the country a place of refuge for those persecuted by the repressive Franco regime. A large group of teachers were part of this group and much of which found work and a continuation of his teaching in schools set up by the republican institutions in exile. The Instituto Ruiz de Alarcón was one of the first to be instituted and the short existence (1939-1943). His controversial closure can’t be understood without considering the political landscape of exile and the performance of aid agencies established ad hoc. The controversy between two socialist opponents, Indalecio Prieto and Juan Negrín, was at the bottom of the closure of the Instituto and the founding of the Colegio Madrid. Jesus Revaque Garea, a key player in this question, was appointed supervisor of educational affairs of the Junta de Auxilio a los Republicanos Españoles (Jare) and had a devastating report on the Ruiz de Alarcon presented a detailed draft for a new school. This report written in 1941, will Revaque detailing problems and irregularities of the Institute in a very critical and harsh, leaving little doubt of his position as reporter of Jare regarding how the agency should proceed. The schools received significant financial support in the form of grants or direct payments, which allowed, in large part, its operation in the first years of life. In fact, the withdrawal of the scholarships to students in the Ruiz de Alarcón, was a considerable blow to the already weak economic capacity of the center, which concluded, among other reasons, the definitive suspension of its activity. Faced with poor management, which can’t be questioned in the wake of the documents consulted, joins an explicit intention of the Jare, to carry forward the draft to consider itself a college, both in its inception and in its management later. Indalecio Prieto so acknowledges in an interview that the college students performed years after Colegio Madrid for a school publication. This control over education from politicians, beyond the management of resources and fell directly in the field teaching: how to educate. The politicization of the exile was a constant that doesn’t always reversed in the positive collective ideological confrontation resulted in open confrontations over resources and redistributing them, which directly affect the companies created in exile and, specifically, schools. The trances themselves from exile, they joined the political controversies that overshadowed even more, the republican unity so longed to recover the ill-fated Republican project

Publisher: Institut d'Estudis Catalans
Year: 2011
OAI identifier: oai:raco.cat:article/244810
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