A colony of Plutella xylostella from crucifer fields in Florida was used in mortality bioassays with HD-1 spore, CryIA(a), CryIA(b), CryIA(c), CryIB, CryIC, CryID, CryIE, or CryIIA. The data revealed high levels of field-evolved resistance to HD-1 spore and all CryIA protoxins and no resistance to CryIB, CryIC, or CryID. CryIE and CryIIA were essentially not toxic. When HD-1 spore was combined 1:1 with protoxin and fed to susceptible larvae, spore synergized the activity of CryIA and CryIC 5- to 8-fold and 1.7-fold, respectively, and did not synergize the mortality of CryIIA. When fed to Florida larvae, spore failed to synergize the activity of all three CryIA protoxins, synergized the activity of CryIC 5.3-fold, and did not synergize the mortality for CryIIA. Binding studies with CryIA(b), CryIB, and CryIC were performed to determine possible mechanisms of resistance. The two techniques used were (i) binding of biotinylated toxin to tissue sections of larval midguts and (ii) binding of biotinylated toxin to brush border membrane vesicles prepared from whole larvae. Both showed dramatically reduced binding of CryIA(b) in resistant larvae compared with that in susceptible larvae but no differences in binding of CryIB or CryIC
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