It is well known that the radiative transfer equation (RTE) is the most accurate deterministic light propagation model employed in diffuse optical tomography (DOT). RTE-based algorithms provide more accurate tomographic results than codes that rely on the diffusion equation (DE), which is an approximation to the RTE, in scattering dominant media. However, RTE based DOT (RTE-DOT) has limited utility in practice due to its high computational cost and lack of support for general non-contact imaging systems. In this dissertation, I developed fast reconstruction algorithms for RTE-based DOT (RTE-DOT), which consists of three independent components: an efficient linear solver for forward problems, an improved optimization solver for inverse problem, and the first light propagation model in free space that fully considers the angular dependency, which can provide a suitable measurement operator for RTE-DOT. This algorithm is validated and evaluated with numerical experiments and clinical data. According to these studies, the novel reconstruction algorithm is up to 30 times faster than traditional reconstruction techniques, while achieving comparable reconstruction accuracy
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