In a group of patients studied for venous insufficiency, the incidence of deep venous insufficiency was much higher than previously suspected. Insufficiency of the superficial system, when present, was associated invariably with deep venous insufficiency, suggesting a leading role for the latter condition. Evidence is presented to show that in many instances, such reflux is probably non-thrombotic. The results of various types of direct venous valve surgery in a group of patients are presented
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