Humic Ion-Binding Model VII aims to predict the competitive reactions of protons and metals with natural organic matter in soils and waters, based on laboratory results with isolated humic and fulvic acids (HA and FA). Model VII is simpler in its postulated multidentate metal binding sites than the previous Model VI. Three model parameters were eliminated by using a formal relationship between monodentate binding to strong- and weak-acid oxygen-containing ligands, and removing factors that provide ranges of ligand binding strengths. Thus Model VII uses a single adjustable parameter, the equilibrium constant for monodentate binding to strong-acid (carboxylate) groups (KMA), for each metallic cation. Proton-binding parameters, and mean values of log KMA were derived by fitting 248 published datasets (28 for protons, 220 for cationic metals). Default values of log KMA for FA were obtained by combining the fitted values for FA, results for HA, and the relationship for different metals between log KMA and equilibrium constants for simple oxygen-containing ligands. The equivalent approach was used for HA. The parameterised model improves on Model VI by incorporating more metals (40), providing better descriptions of metal binding at higher pH, and through more internally-consistent parameter values
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