Sub-Antarctic islands share many similarities in their history of human interaction and impacts before the mid-twentieth century. Large impacts on land were associated with marine exploitation industries of sealing and whaling. Their onshore activities involved considerable construction and pollution in many accessible landing bays, inevitably destroying large areas of coastal terrestrial habitat. Considerable transfer of nutrients to terrestrial environments will have been associated with scavengers utilising large carrion supplies. Attempted establishment of agricultural industries, particularly the introduction of grazing mammals, took place on several islands and, although rarely proving economically viable, often resulted in the long-term creation of feral populations. These were accompanied by introductions of other alien vertebrates, plants and invertebrates to most sub-Antarctic islands, although precise records of introduction events, or subsequent biological studies in this period, largely do not exist. Thus, exploitation industries in this region inevitably led to considerable alterations and impacts to terrestrial ecosystems almost from the outset of human contact with the islands. In the absence of baseline ecological and biodiversity studies, the true magnitude of many of these impacts is difficult to assess, although their legacy continues to the present day. Indeed, the almost complete removal of fur seals may have allowed coastal vegetation to become more extensive and lush than hitherto, paradoxically now regarded as "typical" and threatened by recovery of seal populations
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