Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Environmental estrogens alter early development in Xenopus laevis.

By Cassandra L Bevan, Donna M Porter, Anita Prasad, Marthe J Howard and Leslie P Henderson

Abstract

A growing number of environmental toxicants found in pesticides, herbicides, and industrial solvents are believed to have deleterious effects on development by disrupting hormone-sensitive processes. We exposed Xenopus laevis embryos at early gastrula to the commonly encountered environmental estrogens nonylphenol, octylphenol, and methoxychlor, the antiandrogen, p,p-DDE, or the synthetic androgen, 17 alpha-methyltestosterone at concentrations ranging from 10 nM to 10 microM and examined them at tailbud stages (approximately 48 hr of treatment). Exposure to the three environmental estrogens, as well as to the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol, increased mortality, induced morphologic deformations, increased apoptosis, and altered the deposition and differentiation of neural crest-derived melanocytes in tailbud stage embryos. Although neural crest-derived melanocytes were markedly altered in embryos treated with estrogenic toxicants, expression of the early neural crest maker Xslug, a factor that regulates both the induction and subsequent migration of neural crest cells, was not affected, suggesting that the disruption induced by these compounds with respect to melanocyte development may occur at later stages of their differentiation. Co-incubation of embryos with the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 blocked the ability of nonylphenol to induce abnormalities in body shape and in melanocyte differentiation but did not block the effects of methoxychlor. Our data indicate not only that acute exposure to these environmental estrogens induces deleterious effects on early vertebrate development but also that different environmental estrogens may alter the fate of a specific cell type via different mechanisms. Finally, our data suggest that the differentiation of neural crest-derived melanocytes may be particularly sensitive to the disruptive actions of these ubiquitous chemical contaminants

Topics: Research Article
Year: 2003
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:1241433
Provided by: PubMed Central

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1991). A potent pure antiestrogen with clinical potential.
  2. (1992). Alkylphenol ethoxylates in the environment.
  3. (1994). Amphibian declines: judging stability, persistence, and susceptibility of populations to local and global extinctions.
  4. (1999). Amphibians as a model to study endocrine disruptors. I. Environmental pollution and estrogen receptor binding. Sci Total Environ 225:49–57.
  5. (1999). Amphibians as a model to study endocrine disruptors. II. Estrogenic activity of environmental chemicals in vitro and in vivo.
  6. (2000). An assay system to study migratory behavior of cranial neural crest cells in Xenopus. Dev Gene Evol 210:217–222.
  7. (1998). An updated review of environmental estrogen and androgen mimics and antagonists.
  8. (1998). Antiandrogens as environmental endocrine disruptors. Reprod Fertil Dev 10:105–111.
  9. (2000). Apoptosis and the nervous system.
  10. (2000). Application of the FETAX protocol to assess the developmental toxicity of nonylphenol ethoxylate to Xenopus laevis and two Australian frogs. Aquat Toxicol 51:19–29.
  11. (1998). Avian neural crest-derived neurogenic precursors undergo apoptosis on the lateral migration pathway.
  12. (1987). Behaviour of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants and of nitrilotriacetate in sewage treatment.
  13. (1990). Bioaccumulation of 4-nonylphenol in marine mammals—a re-evaluation. Environ Pollution 64:107–120.
  14. (1992). Chemical-induced alterations of sexual differentiation: a review of effects in humans and rodents. In:
  15. (1989). Development of early swimming in Xenopus laevis embryos: myotomal musculature, its innervation and activation.
  16. (1998). Development of electrical excitability in embryonic neurons: mechanisms and roles.
  17. (1999). Development of neural crest in Xenopus.
  18. (1993). Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans. Environ Health Perspect 101:378–384.
  19. (2001). Differential gene expression in response to methoxychlor and estradiol through ERα, ERβ, and AR in reproductive tissues of female mice.
  20. (1978). Displacement of estradiol from estrogen receptors by simple alkylphenols.
  21. (1997). Effects of estrogenic hormones on early development of Xenopus laevis.
  22. (1994). Effects of estrogens on human melanocytes in vitro.
  23. (2002). Effects of the environmental estrogens bisphenol A, o,p´-DDT, p-tertoctylphenol and coumestrol on apoptosis induction, cell proliferation and the expression of estrogen sensitive molecular parameters in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.
  24. (1997). Endocrine disruptors and reproductive development: a weight-of-evidence overview.
  25. (2000). Endocrine disruptors: present issues, future directions.
  26. (1999). Environmental and biological monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals.
  27. (1999). Environmental antiandrogens: in vitro and in vivo screening mechanisms. Lab Animal 28:26–32.
  28. (2003). Environmental estrogens alter early vertebrate development Environmental Health Perspectives •
  29. (2003). Environmental Health Perspectives Palanza P, Morellini F, Parmigiani S, vom Saal FS.
  30. (1998). Environmental toxicants and female reproduction. Fertil Steril 70:613–622.
  31. (1994). Environmentally persistent alkylphenolic compounds are estrogenic.
  32. (2000). Estrogenic alkylphenols induce cell death by inhibiting testis endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pumps.
  33. (1997). Estrogenic effects of nonylphenol on
  34. (1997). Growth factor action in neural crest diversification.
  35. (2000). ICI 182,780 (FaslodexTM). Development of a novel, “pure” antiestrogen. Cancer 89:817–825.
  36. (1995). Identification of a putative estrogen response element in the gene encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
  37. (1991). In situ hybridization: an improved wholemount method for Xenopus embryos.
  38. (2002). Increased cellular apoptosis after chronic aqueous exposure to nonylphenol and quercetin in adult medaka (Oryzias latipes).
  39. (1995). Induction of the prospective neural crest of Xenopus. Development
  40. (1999). Inhibition of neural crest migration in Xenopus using antisense Slug mRNA.
  41. (1994). Interactions of estrogen with the neurotrophins and their receptors during neural development. Horm Behav 28:367–375.
  42. (1988). Mapping of neural crest pathways in Xenopus laevis using inter- and intra-specific cell markers.
  43. (1996). Mechanisms of estrogen action during neural development: mediation by interactions with the neurotrophins and their receptors?
  44. (2002). Melanocyte function and its control by melanocortin peptides.
  45. (1997). Methoxychlor as a model for environmental estrogens. Crit Rev Toxicol 27:367–379.
  46. (1999). Methoxychlor stimulates estrogen-responsive messenger ribonucleic acids in mouse uterus through a non-estrogen receptor (non-ER)α and non-ERβ mechanism.
  47. (1996). Neural crest apoptosis and the establishment of craniofacial pattern: an honorable death.
  48. (1998). Neural crest induction in Xenopus: evidence for a two-signal model.
  49. (1996). Neural crest migration and pigment pattern formation in urodele amphibians.
  50. (1999). Neural induction.
  51. (1999). Neurotrophin actions during the development of the peripheral nervous system.
  52. NGF stimulation increases JNK2 phosphorylation and reduces capsase-3 activity in the olfactory bulb of estrogen-replaced animals.
  53. (1999). Overlapping and divergent actions of estrogens and the neurotrophins on cell fate and p53-dependent signal transduction in conditionally immortalized cerebral cortex neoblasts.
  54. (1999). Overview of endocrine disruptor research activity in the United States.
  55. (1995). p75 and Trk: a two receptor system. Trends Neurosci 18:321–326.
  56. (1996). Physiology of the neurotrophins. Annu Rev Neurosci 19:289–317.
  57. (1998). Programmed cell death during Xenopus development: a spatio-temporal analysis.
  58. (2000). Relationship between gene expression domains of Xsnail, Xslug, and Xtwist and cell movement in the prospective neural crest of Xenopus.
  59. (1998). Several environmental oestrogens are also anti-androgens.
  60. (2000). Snail-related transcriptional repressors are required in Xenopus for both the induction of the neural crest and its subsequent migration.
  61. (2000). Snail/Slug family of repressors: slowly going into the fast lane of development and cancer.
  62. (1999). Specific issues in health risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals and international activities.
  63. (1984). The absence of calcium blocks impulse-evoked release of acetylcholine but not de novo formation of functional neuromuscular synaptic contacts in culture.
  64. (1993). The development of the neural crest in amphibians. Ann Anat 175:483–499.
  65. (1967). The metabolism of [1,2-3H] 17-α-methyltestosterone in human subjects.
  66. (1982). The Neural Crest.
  67. (1994). The trk family of receptors mediates nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 effects in melanocytes.
  68. (2001). Toxicology of environmental estrogens. Reprod Fertil Dev 13:307–315.
  69. (1993). Vital dye labeling of Xenopus laevis trunk neural crest reveals multipotency and novel pathways of migration.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.