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Further studies on the topography of human platelet glycoprotein IIb. Localization of monoclonal antibody epitopes and the putative glycoprotein IIa- and fibrinogen-binding regions.

By J J Calvete, J Arias, M V Alvarez, M M Lopez, A Henschen and J Gonzalez-Rodriguez

Abstract

Glycoprotein IIb (GPIIb) is a major glycoprotein of the human platelet plasma membrane, which together with glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa) forms a Ca2(+)-dependent heterodimer, GPIIb/IIIa, which serves as the major fibrinogen receptor in activated platelets. The precise localization of the epitopes for six anti-GPIIb monoclonal antibodies (M1-M6) has been determined by a combination of enzymic and chemical cleavage procedures, peptide isolation, N-terminal sequence analysis, peptide synthesis and enzyme immunoassay. The following localizations were found: M1, beta 1-16-36, beta 2-4-24; M2, alpha 747-755; M alpha 2, alpha 837-843; M3, alpha 849-857; M4, alpha 143-151; M5, alpha 550-558; M6, alpha 657-665. Besides considerations of the degree of exposure of these epitopes, several remarkable features are readily apparent. The earliest and main chymotryptic cleavage site of GPIIb in whole platelets is between alpha cysteine-545 and alpha phenylalanine-551. The epitope for M3 was located within the same sequence (alpha 842-857) as is the epitope for PMI-1 [Loftus, Plow, Frelinger, D'Souza, Dixon, Lacy, Sorge & Ginsberg (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 7114-7118] in spite of the fact that the exposure of the latter in whole platelets is EDTA-dependent whereas that in the former is not. The epitope for M5 shares full homology with the 540-548 peptide stretch of the alpha-subunit of the vitronectin receptor, and this antibody cross-reacts with endothelial cells. The M6 epitope is located in the 25 kDa membrane-bound fragment of GPIIb, which is most epitope is destroyed at an early stage of chymotrypic digestion. This suggests that this region of GPIIb, somewhere between the epitope for M5 (alpha 550-558) and the epitope for M2 (alpha 747-755), may carry the surface of interaction of GPIIb with GPIIIa in the GPIIb/IIIa heterodimer. Finally, the sequence where the epitope for M6 has been located (alpha 657-667) was the only one found to be hydropathically complementary to the gamma 402-411 peptide of fibrinogen within the amino acid sequence of both GPIIb and GPIIIa. This complementariness, the EDTA- or thrombin-dependence of the exposure of the alpha 657-665 stretch in whole platelets to M6 and the ability of this antibody to inhibit platelet aggregation led us to postulate that this peptide stretch is a putative binding site for fibrinogen in the platelet receptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS

Topics: Research Article
Year: 1991
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:1149829
Provided by: PubMed Central
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