Approved for public release; distribution is unlimitedProliferation of chemical and biological weapons (CBW) is one of the most dangerous challenges in the modern world. Among the countries that developed CBW, the most advanced programs were in the former Soviet Union. At the beginning of the 1990s, Russia inherited most of the main centers of CBW production and development from the former Soviet Union. The Russian government terminated most CBW programs during the 1990s, leaving scientific personnel almost completely on their own. Many Russian CBW scientists in this situation looked for employment abroad. At the same time countries of proliferation concern, especially Iran and Syria, sought foreign experts to assist their CBW programs. This thesis examined the emigration of highly qualified CBW scientists from Russia during the 1990s. The methodology is an analytical assessment of the literature and critical synthesis of information in the CBW field available from newspapers, journals and the WWW. The thesis concluded that the CBW brain drain from Russia during the 1990s did occur to a very limited degree. Iran and Syria were successful in finding and employing some Russian CBW expertise. The Russian government implemented different programs to combat brain drain during the 1990s, but all of them failed because of the lack of funding. The US-funded programs to stop brain drain from Russia and convert former military researchers to civilian projects appeared to be effective during the 1990s.Third Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukrain
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