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Machining of Some Difficult-to-Cut Materials with Rotary Cutting Tools

By Tero Stjernstoft

Abstract

Automobile and aero industries have an increasing interestin materials with improved mechanical properties. However, manyof these new materials are classified as difficult-to-cut withconventional tools. It is obvious that tools, cutting processesand cutting models has to be devel-oped parallel to materialsscience. In this thesis rotary cutting tools are tested as analternative toexpensive diamond or cubic bore nitridetools. Metal matrix composites mostly consist of a light metalalloy (such as aluminium or titanium) reinforced with hard andabrasive ceramic parti-cles or fibres. On machining, thereinforcement results in a high rate of tool wear. This is themain problem for the machining of MMCs. Many factors affect thelife length of a tool, i.e. matrix alloy, type, size andfraction of the reinforcement, heat treatment, cuttingconditions and tool properties. In tests, the Al-SiC MMC formed a deformation layer duringmilling, probably affected by lack of cooling. The dominatingfactor for tool life was the cutting speed. Water jet or CO2cooling of turning did not provide dramatic increase in toollife. With PCD, cutting speeds up to 2000 m/min were usedwithout machining problems and BUE formation. Tool flank wearwas abrasive and crater wear created an "orange-peel type" wearsurface. PCD inserts did not show the typical increase in flankwear rate at the end of its lifetime. The use of self-propelled rotary tools seems to be apromising way to increase tool life. No BUE was formed on therotary tool at high cutting data. The measurements indicatethat the rotary tool creates twice as good surface as PCDtools. The longest tool life was gained with an inclinationangle of 10 degrees. Tool costs per component will beapproximately the same, but rotary cutting tool allows higherfeeds and therefore a higher production rate and thus a lowerproduction cost. The rotary cutting operation might have a potential toincrease productiv-ity in bar peeling. The lack of BUE withrotary cutting gives hope on higher tool life. The test resultsshow that tool wear was 27% lower with rotary cutting tools.Increase of cutting speed from 22 to 44 m/min did not affectcutting forces. This indicates that the cutting speed canincrease without significant change in tool wear rate. Issues related to rotary cutting like cutting models,cutting processes, standards, tools and models have beendiscussed. A tool wear model with kinetic energy has beendiscussed. KEYWORDS:Difficult-to-Cut material, Metal MatrixComposite (MMC), Machining, Machinability, Rotary Cutting Tool,Acoustic EmissionQCR 20161026</p

Topics: Difficult-to-Cut material, Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), Machining, Machinability, Rotary Cutting Tool, Acoustic Emission
Publisher: Stockholm : Industriell produktion
Year: 2004
OAI identifier: oai:DiVA.org:kth-3693
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