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Ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide emission from pig slurry applied to a pasture in New Zealand

By Robert R. Sherlock, S. G. Sommer, R. Z. Khan, C. W. Wood, E. A. Guertal, J. R. Freney, Christopher O. Dawson and Keith C. Cameron

Abstract

Much animal manure is being applied to small land areas close to animal confinements, resulting in environmental degradation. This paper reports a study on the emissions of ammonia (NH₃), methane (CH₄), and nitrous oxide (N₂O) from a pasture during a 90-d period after pig slurry application (60 m³ ha⁻¹) to the soil surface. The pig slurry contained 6.1 kg total N m⁻³, 4.2 kg of total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN = NH₃ + NH₄) m⁻³, and 22.1 kg C m⁻³, and had a pH of 8.14. Ammonia was lost at a fast rate immediately after slurry application (4.7 kg N ha⁻¹ h⁻¹), when the pH and TAN concentration of the surface soil were high, but the loss rate declined quickly thereafter. Total NH₃ losses from the treated pasture were 57 kg N ha⁻¹ (22.5% of the TAN applied). Methane emission was highest (39.6 g C ha⁻¹ h⁻¹) immediately after application, as dissolved CH₄ was released from the slurry. Emissions then continued at a low rate for approximately 7 d, presumably due to metabolism of volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic slurry–treated soil. The net CH₄ emission was 1052 g C ha⁻¹ (0.08% of the carbon applied). Nitrous oxide emission was low for the first 14 d after slurry application, then showed emission peaks of 7.5 g N ha⁻¹ h⁻¹ on Day 25 and 15.8 g N ha⁻¹ h⁻¹ on Day 67, and decline depending on rainfall and nitrate (NO₃) concentrations. Emission finally reached background levels after approximately 90 d. Nitrous oxide emission was 7.6 kg N ha⁻¹ (2.1% of the N applied). It is apparent that of the two major greenhouse gases measured in this study, N₂O is by far the more important tropospheric pollutant

Topics: emissions, ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide, pig slurry, Agronomy & Agriculture, Animals, Swine, Manure, Soil, Air Pollutants, Refuse Disposal, Volatilization, Agriculture, Fields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences::300100 Soil and Water Sciences, Fields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences::300800 Environmental Science, 04 Earth Sciences, 05 Environmental Sciences, 06 Biological Sciences
Publisher: 'American Society of Agronomy'
Year: 2002
DOI identifier: 10.2134/jeq2002.1491
OAI identifier: oai:researcharchive.lincoln.ac.nz:10182/435
Journal:

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