Formation and long-term fate of non-extractable residues in outdoor lysimeter studies


Long-term outdoor lysimeter studies using C-14-labelled compounds allow the quantification of the 'non-extractable residue fraction'. More than 20 lysimeter studies under realistic environmental conditions showed that more than 80% of residual carbon of the molecule is retained in the topsoil layer even after several years. Generally, 50-90% of this residual radiocarbon is regarded as 'soil bound residue'. Microbial biomass is present in large quantities in topsoil and continuously influences chemical and biochemical alteration of pesticide molecules that may interact directly with the total soil organic matter. Labelling techniques using radioactive isotopes like C-14 have been used to characterize these residues in the humus matrix. Our studies have been directed to the investigation of extractability and/or bioavailability of these residues in long-term investigations. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

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