Selective tibial neurotomy in the treatment of spastic equinovarus foot in hemiplegic patients: a 2-year longitudinal follow-up of 30 cases.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term efficacy of selective tibial neurotomy in the treatment of spastic equinovarus foot in hemiplegic patients. DESIGN: Intervention study (before-after trial) with an observational design and 2-year follow-up. SETTING: Spasticity group in a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Hemiplegic patients (N=30) with spastic equinovarus foot. INTERVENTION: A selective neurotomy was performed at the level of the motor nerve branches of the tibial nerve. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Spasticity (Ashworth scale), muscle strength (Medical Research Council scale), passive ankle dorsiflexion, gait parameters (6 min walking test), and gait kinematics (video assessment) were assessed before and at 2 months, 1 year, and 2 years after selective tibial neurotomy. RESULTS: Compared with preoperative values, there was a statistically significant decrease in triceps surae spasticity, an increase in gait speed, and a reduction in equinus and varus in swing and stance phases at 2 months postoperatively. This improvement persisted at 1 and 2 years after selective tibial neurotomy. Selective tibial neurotomy does not induce permanent triceps muscle weakness or triceps surae-Achilles' tendon complex shortening. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the long-lasting beneficial effect of selective tibial neurotomy on spasticity, gait speed, and equinovarus deformity in the treatment of spastic equinovarus foot in hemiplegic patients