The relationship was studied between the level of the intracellular adenylates and the biosynthesis of tylosin by Streptomyces fradiae NRRL 2702. The adenylate level was observed to be inversely related to the rate of tylosin biosynthesis and hence the final concentration of the antibiotic. The concentrations of the adenylates were maximal during the trophophase, dropped quickly before the onset of tylosin biosynthesis, and remained at low levels throughout the idiophase. The adenylate energy charge was almost constant throughout the fermentation and was in the range of 0.4 to 0.55. Glucose addition in the idiophase suppressed tylosin biosynthesis, accompanied by a rapid increase in the adenylate levels. The biosynthesis of tylosin resumed after a rapid drop in the adenosine triphosphate concentration. Two enzymes catalyzing the interconversion of propionyl-coenzyme A and methylmalonyl-coenzyme A were found in this organism: methylmalonyl-coenzyme A carboxyltransferase (EC 18.104.22.168) and propionyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (EC 22.214.171.124). The activity of the former was two orders of magnitude higher than that of the latter. The activities of both enzymes were affected by the increased glucose addition in the idiophase
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