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Variability of climate, water and nitrogen status and its influence on vine phenology and grape composition inside a small winegrowing estate



Climate is a major terroir factor in viticulture. In winegrowing regions, climate is studied at an increasingly refined scale. Results from the Life ADVICLIM project show substantial spatial variability of temperatures inside the region of Saint-Emilion, Pomerol and surrounding appellations (Bordeaux, France). In this study we investigated climatic variability at an even more refined scale, inside an 11 ha estate located in Saint-Emilion with significant topographic variability, planted with Merlot and Cabernet franc. Elevation ranges from 34 to 81 meters. 31 temperature sensors were set-up in 2013 inside the canopy, taking into account all parameters linked to the topography. Spatial temperature variability and its influence on vine phenology and grape composition were investigated. Vine water and nitrogen status were also taken into account through δ13C and N-tester measurements. Over the growing season (April 1 through September 30), spatial temperature variability was greater on minimum temperatures (1.6°C) compared to maximum temperatures (1.3°C). Spatial variability in minimum temperature was driven by elevation and slope. Further investigation is required for spatial variability in maximum temperature, which could not be explained by environmental co-variables. Temperature variability among vintages was driven by maximum temperature, while minimum temperature showed little variation from one year to another. The average Winkler Index measured in the canopy ranged from 1774 degree.days to 1978 degree.days. This spatial variability of 204 degree.days can induces potentially 20 days difference in maturity dates. The timing of flowering varied from one vintage to another but inside a given vintage spatial variability was small, and so was variability induced by the cultivar. Veraison dates were highly variable among vintages. Inside a given vintage, spatial variability and cultivar effect were significant. Berry weight was driven by vine water and nitrogen status. Berry malic acid content was impacted by temperature. Vine water and nitrogen status also influenced berry malic acid content. Berry sugar content depended mainly on vine nitrogen status. The grapevine variety influenced berry sugar and malic acid content, as well as berry mass

Topics: Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]/Biologie végétale
Publisher: 'EDP Sciences'
Year: 2018
DOI identifier: 10.1051/e3sconf/20185001016/pdf
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Oskar Bordeaux

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