Self-management – Property – Peasantry


Historically self-management may be regard as an idea (concept), then as practice mainly arising in the 20th century, and eventually as the definite social system where the idea is materialized and asserted in the immediate social practice. It is the case of the Yugoslav self-management system which was introduced into the industry at first, and afterwards in the services and institutions. Means of production as collective property is the essential condition of the self-management system. Efforts are made to introduce the self-management in the system of the agricultural co-operation where the private and collective property co-exist. The question of the relation of the small private farmers\u27 holdings and of the agricultural estates rises in that context, that is to say the question of the individual and social production (although every production is social in a way). That question was important subject in the discussion between the Marxists and the Revisionists in the First International, and it is very important agricultural policy question in the Constitutional Amendments in present day Yugoslavia. Some interesting conceptions concerning the problem of the self-management and the problem of the ownership are given by the theoreticians of the other socialist countries and the theoreticians of the political systems of the under-developed countries. According to some of them the question of the nationalization is not primary for the »socialist« revolution because of the specific conditions of the development of their countries. The existing self-management system in Yugoslavia does not offer an equal self-management status to the peasantry in regard to other social categories. So peasantry is not able to realize the joint interests of the individual producer and of the whole society and find out a firm self-management behavior pattern. Peasantry may realize the self-management system in the co-operation on the condition to be prepared to fight for the equal production conditions and the self-management status. In our social system peasant is excluded from the most important self-management mechanisms (only because peasant is owner). Modern technology and modern organisation of the production tend to greater unity of the private and common property, and so possibility to create a new type of the producer, as a result of general social and economic trends in Yugoslav society, is more real. Which category of the producer it is going to be is hard to say, but according to the structural changes in the society up to new, prospects for two categories arise. That are: the category of the mixed households which will draw resources both from the social field of the activities and from the individual production on the farm, and the other category of the individual agricultural farms. The forms and the mechanisms of the self-management will have to be adjusted to general trends of social development and produce more and more numerous forms of the self-management decision-making. Socialism as social and self-management system and modern technology cannot be based on the insignificant autarchic agricultural production, and as such they are contrary to it not to the depend to incorporate all the categories of the producers in the self-management practice. Without regard to the existence of the private property in the agriculture, according to the present trends, it is possible to realize the self-management relations in the co-operation. That means, that the private property is not direct obstacle to the development of the self-management system in the existing co-operation, and on the other hand that the common property is not always the casting element. The fact that the common property exists has its importance in the process of social production (which may exist without common property too), that is to say socially organised production and distribution. In that case the essential hypothesis of the self-management is the socialized production as prima category not common property. Common property has only secondary importance for the development of the self-management system in the co-operation and cannot be excuse for the exclusion of the individual agricultural producer from it

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