The Rudnik Mts. volcano-intrusive complex (central Serbia): An example of how magmatism controls metallogeny


This study reports and discusses new radiometric ages, petrographical and volcanological observations and whole rock geochemical data of the rocks of the Rudnik Mts. volcano-intrusive complex. The complex hosts a Pb-Zn-Ag deposit and belongs to the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenetic belt. Two distinct igneous events are distignuished. The first occurred >30 Ma and was mainly characterized by extrusive and shallow intrusive dacites and andesites and was unrelated to mineralization. The second igneous event occurred <23 Ma and was highly heterogeneous in terms of volcanic products and petrographic varieties, but with predominance of quartzlatites. The dacite-andesites (first event) and the quartzlatites (second event) are geochemically similar and display a calc-alkaline affinity and highly incompatible element enriched patterns on spider diagrams, but the younger quartzlatites are richer in K2O, Rb and Ba and poorer in Sr. This is taken as evidence that mixing between an ultrapotassic lamprophyre/lamproite magma and an acid calc-alkaline (dacite-like) magma was essential petrogenetic processes during the second event. The proposed simplified volcanological model suggests that this mixing was responsible for triggering strongly explosive volcanic activity as well as for providing conditions for active hydrothermal and mineralization processes. The observed link between a specific magmatic phase and ore deposit formation can be a general phennomenon in the Balkans, and must be addressed by further and more advanced studies

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