The Liberal and Social-state Principle; Implacability or Convergence555

Abstract

Ovaj se rad bavi istraživanjem odnosa između liberalnog i socijalnodržavnog principa u socijalnom kontekstu modernih visokorazvijenih društava. Taj odnos postaje osobito važan u današnjoj povijesnoj konjunkturi koja je obilježena krahom realsocijalističkih sistema i trijumfom liberalnog modela, o čemu Fukuyama govori kao o »kraju povijesti«. U toj se konjunkturi postavlja pitanje da li je liberalni model toliko samodostatan da sam razriješava sve socijalne kontradikcije i potrebe te da svaki oblik socijalne regulative (»socijalna država«) ne znači ništa drugo nego umanjivanje efikasnosti tog modela i potkopavanje njegove socijalne legitimnosti. Postoje tri tipična odgovora na to pitanje. Prvi odgovor (Macpherson) zastupa stajalište da je liberalni model — bez obzira na svoja protuslovlja — najrazumniji oblik socijalne organizacije, da je on najsposobniji za maksimiziranje ljudskog blagostanja i sreće, pod uvjetom da se ta dva cilja ne poimaju kao konzumerističko gomilanje gotovih stvari. Liberalnom modelu nije, dakle, potrebna nikakva korekcija u smislu državne asistencije. Drugi odgovor zastupa tezu da su i klasični liberalizam i klasična »socijalna država« dosegli svoj maksimum. Ono što je potrebno suvremenim visokorazvijenim društvima jest nova definicija »socijalnog prostora« i modernizacija »socijalne države« u pravcu njezine debirokratizacije. Socijalni princip u razvijenim društvima postaje bitan i na njegovoj će se osnovi ispisivati scenariji budućnosti. Ovakovo mišljenje najrječitije zastupa francuski autor P. Rosanvallon. Treći odgovor daje Hirschmann. On smatra da se liberalni i socijalnodržavni princip u modernim društvima nužno isprepliću, sukobljavaju i nadopunjuju te da ta konvergencija dvaju konstitutivnih načela predstavlja bitan momenat njihove efikasnosti i sposobnosti za promjene.This paper deals with the research of the relationship between the liberal and the social-state principle in the social context of modem, highly developed societies. This relationship is becoming particularly important in today’s historical conjuncture, which has been marked by the falling apart of real socialist systems and by the triumph of the liberal model, which Fukuyama speaks of as »the end of history«. In these circumstances appears the question whether the liberal model is self-sufficient enough to solve all social contradictions alone, as well as to satisfy all needs, which means that all forms of social regulations (»the social state«) present nothing else but a decrease in this model’s efficaciousness and the undermining of its social legitimacy. There are three typical answers to that question. The first (Macpherson) expresses the opinion that the liberal model is — regardless of its contradictions — the most reasonable form of social organization, that it is the most capable in maximizing human prosperity and happiness, provided that these two goals are not considered as the consumerist piling of ready-made objects. The liberal model, therefore, does not need any correction regarding assistance from the state. In the second answer it is argued that both classical liberalism and the classical »social state« have reached their maximum What the contemporary, highly developed societies need is a new definition of »social environment« and the modernization of »the social state« directed toward debureaucratization. The social principle in developed societies is gaining importance, inducing the scenarios for the future to be written in accordance with it. This opinion is most eloquently represented by the French author P. Rosanvallon. The third answer is given by Hirschman. He deems that the liberal and social state principle in modem societies are necessarily interwoven, conflicting and complementing each other, and that this convergence of two constitutive principles represents an important factor of their efficaciousness and capability for change

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